Protective effect of salvianolic acid B against oxidative injury associated with cystine stone formation
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The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in cystine crystal formation and whether salvianolic acid B, a natural antioxidant, could prevent cystine-mediated oxidative injury in vivo and in vitro. The levels of oxidative stress and antioxidase activity in cystine stone patients were assessed. Then, the oxidative stress exerted by cystine on human kidney-2 (HK-2) cell viability and biochemical parameters including antioxidase activity and antioxidant protein expression were evaluated, and the protective action of salvianolic acid B was also examined. Finally, salvianolic acid B was tested to determine whether it could prevent or reduce renal crystal formation in Slc7a9 knockout mice. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were decreased, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased in patients with cystine stones compared with people without cystine stones (p < 0.05). Significant reductions in cell viability, antioxidase activity and antioxidant protein expression levels were found in the cystine group compared with controls. However, such oxidative injuries were prevented by salvianolic acid B. In the animal study, loose crystals with white spots were seen in the renal parenchyma, bilateral renal pelvis and bladders in the Slc7a9 knockout group. In contrast, no renal crystals were seen in the control group, and markedly fewer crystals with significantly higher antioxidase activity and diminished oxidative stress were detected in the salvianolic acid B group. Cystine cytotoxicity in vitro and cystine stone formation in vivo were associated with oxidative stress, and salvianolic acid B could protect against cystine stone-induced injury.
KeywordsUrolithiasis, cystine stones Oxidative injury Salvianolic acid B
YFZ: conception and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, financial support, manuscript writing, and final approval of manuscript; LWX: data analysis, manuscript writing, and final approval of manuscript; KL, LHZ and YZG: performed the experiments and data collection; RPJ: conception and design, manuscript preparation, financial and administrative support, and final approval of manuscript.
This study was financially supported by Science development foundation of Nanjing Medical University (2017NJMUZD106).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors indicated no potential conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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