, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 523–533 | Cite as

The impact of body mass index on quantitative 24-h urine chemistries in stone forming patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Qing Wang
  • Weijie Hu
  • Yuchao Lu
  • Henglong Hu
  • Jiaqiao Zhang
  • Shaogang WangEmail author
Original Paper


To study the impact of body mass index (BMI) on quantitative 24-h urine chemistries in stone forming patients and to explore how overweight and obesity contribute to urolithiasis. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was performed in July 2017 and updated in October 2017 to detect relevant studies. After that, we screened all the relevant articles in accordance with the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data of eligible studies were extracted, and then, a meta-analysis was conducted via RevMan 5.3 software. Nine studies, involving 5965 stone forming patients who underwent 24-h urine collection for chemistry analysis, were included in our analysis. BMI was used to clarify the body size. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 group, including overweight and obesity patients, erected more calcium (WMD 34.44 mg; 95% CI 11.33–57.55; p = 0.003), oxalate (WMD 3.44 mg; 95% CI 1.40–5.49; p = 0.001), urate (WMD 97.71 mg; 95% CI 63.05–132.38; p < 0.00001), and sodium (WMD 26.64 mg; 95% CI 18.23–35.05; p < 0.00001) in 24 h than BMI < 25 kg/m2 group. However, the BMI < 25 kg/m2 group showed higher pH of urine (WMD 0.12; 95% CI 0.04–0.20; p = 0.004). There was no significant difference in 24-h urine volume (WMD − 29.30 ml; 95% CI − 122.03 to − 63.42; p = 0.54), citrate (WMD − 34.03 mg; 95% CI − 72.88 to 4.82; p = 0.09), magnesium (WMD − 4.50 mg; 95% CI − 10.48 to 1.48; p = 0.14), phosphate (WMD − 89.38 mg; 95% CI − 219.23 to 40.47; p = 0.18), and creatinine (WMD − 191.98 mg; 95% CI − 395.35 to 11.38; p = 0.06) between the two groups. All the results kept the same tendency when gender was taken in consideration. Sensitivity analysis generated similar results. The current evidence suggested that patients with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 erected more promotions but not inhibitors of urolithiasis than those with BMI < 25 kg/m2, which increased the risk of urolithiasis in overweight and obesity individuals.


Urolithiasis 24-h urine analysis Body mass index Obesity 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Qing Wang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Weijie Hu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Yuchao Lu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Henglong Hu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Jiaqiao Zhang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Shaogang Wang declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

240_2018_1044_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (592 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 592 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

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