Understanding the Evolution of Mitochondrial Genomes in Phaeophyceae Inferred from Mitogenomes of Ishige okamurae (Ishigeales) and Dictyopteris divaricata (Dictyotales)
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To gain further insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) in Phaeophyceae, the first recorded characterization of an Ishigeophycidae mtDNA from Ishige okamurae (Yendo), and only the second recorded characterization of a Dictyotophycidae mtDNA from Dictyopteris divaricata (Okamura) Okamura are presented in this study. The 35,485 bp I. okamurae mtDNA contained 36 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, three rRNAs, and four open reading frames (orfs), and the 32,021 bp D. divaricata mtDNA harbored 35 PCGs, 25 tRNAs, three rRNAs, and three orfs. The A + T content in D. divaricata (61.69%) was the lowest recorded in sequenced brown algal mtDNAs. The I. okamurae mtDNA displayed unique genome features including an elevated start-codon usage bias for GTG, while the organization of D. divaricata mtDNA was identical to that of Dictyota dichotoma. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence dataset of 35 PCGs indicated that I. okamurae (Ishigeophycidae) diverged early from the Fucophycidae–Dictyotophycidae complex, which was confirmed by the comparative analysis of the mitogenome structure. The novel mitogenome data made available by this study have improved our understanding of the evolution, phylogenetics, and genomics of brown algae.
KeywordsMitochondrial genome Brown algae Ishigeales Dictyotales Evolution Phaeophyceae
The authors wish to thank Xingfeng Liu, Wei Luan, Guiyang Li, Zhe Jin, and Jun Qi for their assistance in algal collection and data analysis. This work was financially supported by the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. QYZDB-SSW-DQC023), the Marine S&T Fund of Shandong Province for Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao) (No. 2018SDKJ0504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41876165), the S&T Innovation Project of Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao) (No. 2016ASKJ02), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2015164), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Integrated Marine Monitoring and Applied Technologies for Harmful Algal Blooms, S.O.A. (No. MATHAB201701), and the Earmarked Fund for Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System in Shandong Province of China (No. SDAIT-26-09).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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