Journal of Molecular Evolution

, Volume 87, Issue 1, pp 16–26 | Cite as

Understanding the Evolution of Mitochondrial Genomes in Phaeophyceae Inferred from Mitogenomes of Ishige okamurae (Ishigeales) and Dictyopteris divaricata (Dictyotales)

  • Feng LiuEmail author
  • Yongyu Zhang
  • Yuping Bi
  • Weizhou Chen
  • Fiona Wanjiku Moejes
Original Article


To gain further insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) in Phaeophyceae, the first recorded characterization of an Ishigeophycidae mtDNA from Ishige okamurae (Yendo), and only the second recorded characterization of a Dictyotophycidae mtDNA from Dictyopteris divaricata (Okamura) Okamura are presented in this study. The 35,485 bp I. okamurae mtDNA contained 36 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, three rRNAs, and four open reading frames (orfs), and the 32,021 bp D. divaricata mtDNA harbored 35 PCGs, 25 tRNAs, three rRNAs, and three orfs. The A + T content in D. divaricata (61.69%) was the lowest recorded in sequenced brown algal mtDNAs. The I. okamurae mtDNA displayed unique genome features including an elevated start-codon usage bias for GTG, while the organization of D. divaricata mtDNA was identical to that of Dictyota dichotoma. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence dataset of 35 PCGs indicated that I. okamurae (Ishigeophycidae) diverged early from the Fucophycidae–Dictyotophycidae complex, which was confirmed by the comparative analysis of the mitogenome structure. The novel mitogenome data made available by this study have improved our understanding of the evolution, phylogenetics, and genomics of brown algae.


Mitochondrial genome Brown algae Ishigeales Dictyotales Evolution Phaeophyceae 



The authors wish to thank Xingfeng Liu, Wei Luan, Guiyang Li, Zhe Jin, and Jun Qi for their assistance in algal collection and data analysis. This work was financially supported by the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. QYZDB-SSW-DQC023), the Marine S&T Fund of Shandong Province for Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao) (No. 2018SDKJ0504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41876165), the S&T Innovation Project of Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao) (No. 2016ASKJ02), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2015164), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Integrated Marine Monitoring and Applied Technologies for Harmful Algal Blooms, S.O.A. (No. MATHAB201701), and the Earmarked Fund for Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System in Shandong Province of China (No. SDAIT-26-09).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest

Ethics Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

239_2018_9881_MOESM1_ESM.doc (46 kb)
Supplementary material 1 Table S1 The specific primers used to amply the long fragments which were assembled into the complete mitochondrial genomes of Ishige okamurae and Dictyopteris divaricata. (DOC 45 KB)
239_2018_9881_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (2.1 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (JPG 2144 KB)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of OceanologyChinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Laboratory for Marine Biology and BiotechnologyQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Center for Ocean Mega-ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Biofuels, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy GeneticsQingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Biotechnology Research CenterShandong Academy of Agricultural SciencesJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.Marine Biology InstituteShantou UniversityShantouPeople’s Republic of China
  7. 7.Bantry Marine Research StationCo. CorkIreland

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