Phalloplasty and the tube pedicle: a chronological re-evaluation
- 5 Downloads
The invention of the tubed pedicle allowed the surgical realization of phalloplasty. Most articles on modern phalloplasty refer to Nikolai Bogoraz as being the first surgeon to attempt the procedure. Re-analysis of published material. Analysis suggests that, although Bogoraz may have been the first to describe it, he was almost certainly not the first to perform it, this honor falling to Sir Harold Gillies. It is important to assess in detail work published in both English and non-English language journals. This has become easier and more commonplace with the development of open access through the Internet but remains difficult with historical texts that have not been converted into digital versions.
Level of Evidence: Not ratable.
KeywordsPhalloplasty Tube pedicle Gillies Bogoraz Maltz
We are grateful to Kate Jarman (Trust Archivist, Barts Health NHS Trust) for access to the registers and for permission to reproduce the extracts shown in Figs. 9, 10, and 11. We also thank Mr. Roger Green (Archivist, British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Esthetic Surgeons) for his helpful advice.
Conflict of interest
Andrew N. Bamji and Peter J. Taub declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Filatov VP (1917) Plastic procedure using a round pedicle (title translated). Vestnik Oftalmologii 34:149–128. In: McDowell F (1977) The source book of plastic surgery. Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, pp 409–416Google Scholar
- 3.Bogoraz NA (1936) On complete plastic reconstruction of a penis sufficient for coitus (Russian). Soviet Surg (Sovetskaya kirugiya) 8:103–109Google Scholar
- 4.Bogoras N (1936) Uber die volle plastische Wiederherstellung eines zum coitus fähigen Penis (Penisplastica totalis). Zbl Chir 63:1271–1276Google Scholar
- 7.Gillies HD, Millard DR (1957) The principles and art of plastic surgery. Little Brown & Company, BostonGoogle Scholar
- 8.Gillies HD, Millard DR (1957) The principles and art of plastic surgery. Little Brown & Company, Boston, pp 383–384Google Scholar
- 9.Gillies HD, Harrison RJ (1948) Congenital absence of the penis. Br J Plast Surg 1:8Google Scholar
- 10.Gillies HD, Harrison RJ (1948) Congenital absence of the penis. Br J Plast Surg 1:20Google Scholar
- 11.Gillies HD, Millard DR (1957) The Principles and art of plastic surgery. LittleBrown, Boston, p 376Google Scholar
- 12.Information from Ancestry.comGoogle Scholar
- 13.Frumkin AP (1944) Reconstruction of the male genitalia. Am Rev Soviet Med 2:14–21Google Scholar
- 14.Gillies HD, Harrison RJ (1948) Congenital absence of the penis. Br J Plast Surg 1:13 (referenced as Maltz M, Evolution of plastic surgery, 1946)Google Scholar
- 15.Golpanian S, Guler KA, Tao L, Sanchez PG, Sputova K et al (2016) Phalloplasty and urethral (re)construction: a chronological timeline. Anaplastology 5(2016):159Google Scholar