European Journal of Plastic Surgery

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 489–494 | Cite as

Skin wound healing properties of Hypericum perforatum, Liquidambar orientalis, and propolis mixtures

  • Mehmet AltıparmakEmail author
  • Mustafa Kule
  • Yasin Öztürk
  • Serkan Yaşar Çelik
  • Mehmet Öztürk
  • Mehmet E. Duru
  • Uğur Koçer
Original Paper


Traditional formulation therapies based on natural origin compounds offer new alternatives for treatment of skin wounds. Hypericum perforatum (HP), Liquidambar orientalis (LO), and propolis have been proved to promote skin wound healing. Extracts of these compounds are traditionally used as folk remedies. They all have different effects on each phases of wound healing. Wound healing effects of the mixtures of these compounds were investigated. HP, LO, and propolis were prepared as combinations of mixtures at an equal rate. Fifty Spraque-Dawley rats were included in this study. They were divided into the following 5 groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (HP-propolis, 1:1), group 3 (HP-LO, 1:1), group 4 (LO-propolis, 1:1), and group 5 (HP-LO-propolis, 1:1:1). Two incisional wounds were made and primarily closed on the interscapular region of every rat. Formulations were applied daily on the wounds. Biopsies were taken on days 3, 7, and 21 postoperatively from every rat. Histopathological and tensile strength parameters were analyzed. Angiogenesis and epithelialization rates were significantly higher in treatment groups compared with control (p < 0.05). Inflammation was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in treatment groups compared with control. There was no significance in tensile strength between groups. There was no difference between treatment groups. Hypericum perforatum, Liquidambar orientalis, and propolis have all improved wound healing in incisional wounds. Although they produced different effects on various parameters, mixtures of these compounds ensure a more stable response to wounds. As a result, we can mention about a positive synergy between the compounds. Level of Evidence: Level III, Experimental study.


Combination therapy Hypericum perforatum Liquidambar orientalis Propolis Traditional therapy Wound healing 



This study was supported by the Funding of Scientific Research Projects of Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University Grant No: 17/045.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Mehmet Altıparmak, Mustafa Kule, Yasin Öztürk, Serkan Y. Çelik, Mehmet Öztürk, Mehmet E. Duru, and Uğur Koçer declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was ethically approved by Ankara Education and Research Hospital Ethical Committee No: 0030 Decision: 403.

Informed consent



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic SurgeryMuğla Sıtkı Koçman UniversityMuğlaTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Department of OtorhinolaryngologyMuğla Sıtkı Koçman UniversityMuğlaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic SurgeryAnkara Education and Research HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of Medicine, Department of PathologyMuğla Sıtkı Koçman UniversityMuğlaTurkey
  5. 5.Faculty of Science, Chemistry DepartmentMuğla Sıtkı Koçman UniversityMuğlaTurkey

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