Venous pathologies in paediatric neuroradiology: from foetal to adolescent life

  • Kshitij MankadEmail author
  • Asthik Biswas
  • Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet
  • Luke Dixon
  • Nihaal Reddy
  • Ai Peng Tan
  • Ozgur Oztekin
  • Felice D’Arco
  • Karuna Shekdar
  • Prakash Muthusami
  • Fergus Robertson
  • Stacy Goergen
  • Winston Chong


The interpretation of cerebral venous pathologies in paediatric practice is challenging as there are several normal anatomical variants, and the pathologies are diverse, involving the venous system through direct and indirect mechanisms. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of these entities, as their awareness can avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls. We also propose a practical classification system of paediatric cerebral venous pathologies, which will enable more accurate reporting of the neuroimaging findings, as relevant to the underlying pathogenesis of these conditions. The proposed classification system comprises of the following main groups: arterio-venous shunting–related disorders, primary venous malformations and veno-occlusive disorders. A multimodal imaging approach has been included in the relevant subsections, with a brief overview of the modality-specific pitfalls that can also limit interpretation of the neuroimaging. The article also summarises the current literature and international practices in terms of management options and outcomes in specific disease entities.


venous DAVS VGAM pericranii DAVF 


Funding information

No funding was received for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

Not applicable.

Informed consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kshitij Mankad
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Asthik Biswas
    • 3
  • Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet
    • 4
  • Luke Dixon
    • 1
  • Nihaal Reddy
    • 5
  • Ai Peng Tan
    • 6
  • Ozgur Oztekin
    • 7
  • Felice D’Arco
    • 1
  • Karuna Shekdar
    • 8
  • Prakash Muthusami
    • 9
  • Fergus Robertson
    • 10
  • Stacy Goergen
    • 3
    • 11
  • Winston Chong
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyGreat Ormond Street HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.Great Ormond Street HospitalLondonUK
  3. 3.Monash Imaging, Monash HealthMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Neuroradiology Unit, Bambino Gesu Children’s Hospital, NESMOS DepartmentSapienza UniversityRomeItaly
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyThe Royal Children’s HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  6. 6.Diagnostic ImagingNational University Health SystemSingaporeSingapore
  7. 7.Health Science University, Tepecik Education and Research HospitalIzmirTurkey
  8. 8.Department of RadiologyChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  9. 9.Neuroradiology, Diagnostic ImagingThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  10. 10.NeuroradiologyNational Hospital for Neurology and NeurosurgeryLondonUK
  11. 11.School of Clinical SciencesMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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