Micro-CT myelography using contrast-enhanced digital subtraction: feasibility and initial results in healthy rats

  • Pablo C. Zambrano-Rodríguez
  • Sirio Bolaños-Puchet
  • Horacio J. Reyes-Alva
  • Luis E. García-Orozco
  • Mario E. Romero-Piña
  • Angelina Martinez-Cruz
  • Gabriel Guízar-SahagúnEmail author
  • Luis A. MedinaEmail author
Spinal Neuroradiology



The spinal subarachnoid space (SSAS) is vital for neural performance. Although models of spinal diseases and trauma are used frequently, no methods exist to obtain high-resolution myelograms in rodents. Thereby, our aim was to explore the feasibility of obtaining high-resolution micro-CT myelograms of rats by contrast-enhanced dual-energy (DE) and single-energy (SE) digital subtraction.


Micro-CT contrast-enhanced DE and SE imaging protocols were implemented with live adult rats (total of 18 animals). For each protocol, contrast agents based on iodine (Iomeron® 400 and Fenestra® VC) and gold nanoparticles (AuroVist™ 15 nm) were tested. For DE, images at low- and high-energy settings were acquired after contrast injection; for SE, one image was acquired before and the other after contrast injection. Post-processing consisted of region of interest selection, image registration, weighted subtraction, and longitudinal alignment.


High-resolution myelograms were obtained with contrast-enhanced digital subtraction protocols. After qualitative and quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio) analyses, we found that the SE acquisition protocol with Iomeron® 400 provides the best images. 3D contour renderings allowed visualization of SSAS and identification of some anatomical structures within it.


This in vivo study shows the potential of SE contrast-enhanced myelography for imaging SSAS in rat. This approach yields high-resolution 3D images without interference from adjacent anatomical structures, providing an innovative tool for further assessment of studies involving rat SSAS.


Metal nanoparticles Myelography Subarachnoid space Subtraction technique Three-dimensional X-ray microtomography 


Compliance with ethical standards


This study was funded by the Fund for Health Research (Grant FIS/IMSS/PROT/G15/1465) from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social ( and institutional research resources from the National Cancer Institute, Mexico (

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the Committee of Ethics in Research of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (File no. R-2014-785-099). All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y ZootecniaUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoTolucaMexico
  2. 2.Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer INCan/UNAMInstituto Nacional de CancerologíaMexico CityMexico
  3. 3.Department of Experimental SurgeryProyecto Camina A.CMexico CityMexico
  4. 4.Research Unit for Neurological Diseases, Hospital de Especialidades Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXIIMSSMexico CityMexico
  5. 5.Instituto de FísicaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexico CityMexico

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