, Volume 61, Issue 2, pp 217–224 | Cite as

Hybrid operation to revascularize long-segment occluded internal carotid artery prevent further ischemic events

  • Kun Zhang
  • Bu-Lang Gao
  • Tong-Yuan Zhao
  • Tian-Xiao Li
  • Jiang-Yu XueEmail author
  • Ying-Kun He
  • Dong-Yang Cai
  • Bo-Wen Yang
Interventional Neuroradiology



The effects and complications of hybrid procedure (combined carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting) to revascularize chronic long-segment occlusion of internal carotid artery (ICA) are currently unknown and the purpose of this study.


Sixty-five patients with long-segment occlusion of ICA were prospectively enrolled and divided into two groups of revascularization with hybrid operation (n = 30) and medication group (n = 35), and clinical and angiographic data were analyzed.


The duration from symptom onset to revascularization ranged 17–120 days (mean 40.5 ± 5.0) in the hybrid operation, with a success revascularization rate of 100%. All patients had thrombi extracted with the clot length ranging 5–8 cm (mean 6.3 ± 0.9). The thrombolysis in cerebral infarction grade (TICI) was significantly (P < 0.0001) greater immediately after (median 2,) than before recanalization (0). Periprocedural complications included recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in one patient and intracranial hemorrhage in another (6.7%), but no severe neurological deficits occurred. The symptoms were significantly (P < 0.0001) improved after compared with before operation, with the modified Rankin score of 2.5 ± 0.6 at 3 months postoperation which was significantly (P < 0.0001) improved compared with before revascularization (3.4 ± 0.6). Follow-up angiography revealed patent ICA in all patients with hybrid operation. In the medication alone group, no significant (P > 0.05) improvement was observed with the mRS score of 3.5 ± 0.8 at admission and 3.4 ± 0.7 at 3 months, which was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than in the hybrid operation.


Hybrid operation may be safe and effective in revascularizing long-segment occlusion of internal carotid artery for prevention of further ischemic events.


Hybrid operation Carotid artery stenting Endarterectomy Cerebral ischemia 


Compliance with ethical standards


This study was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of China Program (Project No. 81601583).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in the studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Henan Provincial People’s HospitalZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Interventional TherapyHenan Provincial People’s Hospital and Zhengzhou University People’s HospitalZhengzhouChina

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