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The Journal of Membrane Biology

, Volume 247, Issue 9–10, pp 861–881 | Cite as

Amphiphilic Macromolecules on Cell Membranes: From Protective Layers to Controlled Permeabilization

  • E. Marie
  • S. Sagan
  • S. Cribier
  • C. TribetEmail author
Article

Abstract

Antimicrobial and cell-penetrating peptides have inspired developments of abiotic membrane-active polymers that can coat, penetrate, or break lipid bilayers in model systems. Application to cell cultures is more recent, but remarkable bioactivities are already reported. Synthetic polymer chains were tailored to achieve (i) high biocide efficiencies, and selectivity for bacteria (Gram-positive/Gram-negative or bacterial/mammalian membranes), (ii) stable and mild encapsulation of viable isolated cells to escape immune systems, (iii) pH-, temperature-, or light-triggered interaction with cells. This review illustrates these recent achievements highlighting the use of abiotic polymers, and compares the major structural determinants that control efficiency of polymers and peptides. Charge density, sp. of cationic and guanidinium side groups, and hydrophobicity (including polarity of stimuli-responsive moieties) guide the design of new copolymers for the handling of cell membranes. While polycationic chains are generally used as biocidal or hemolytic agents, anionic amphiphilic polymers, including Amphipols, are particularly prone to mild permeabilization and/or intracell delivery.

Keywords

Amphiphilic polymers Amphipols Antimicrobial and cell penetrating peptides Cell membrane permeabilization 

Notes

Acknowledgments

EM and CT were supported by “programme Investissement d’Avenir ANR-11-LABX-0011-01.”

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Département de ChimieEcole Normale Supérieure, UMR 8640 CNRS-ENS-UPMCParisFrance
  2. 2.Département de ChimieSorbonne Universités - UPMC University Paris 06, École Normale Supérieure-PSL University, CNRS, LBMParisFrance

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