Advertisement

Effect of controlled pH and concentrations of copper sulphate and silver nitrate solutions during nanoparticles synthesis towards modifying compressor oil yield stress and lubricity for improved refrigeration

  • Samuel Eshorame SanniEmail author
  • Frederick-Simon Ovie
  • Oluseyi Ajayi
  • Oluranti Agboola
  • Sam Sunday Adefila
  • Patricia Popoola
  • Rotimi Sadiku
Original
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

Vapour compression systems are designed to use refrigerants and lubricants for smooth performance. However, recent advances in nanoparticles research have led to the use of Cu and Ag-nanoparticles (AgNPs and CuNPs) as compressor fluid modifiers. In this study, several concentrations of AgNO3 and CuSO4 solutions were adopted in synthesizing nanoparticles for use in a compressor oil. The optimum Coefficient of Performance and cooling effect of the system were observed at optimum concentrations of 0.08 and 1.6 M for the Ag- and CuNP- lubricating oils, respectively, thus giving better cooling effects than the ordinary Copeland 46B oil. At optimum conditions, the weakly acidic CuNP-oil performed better than the weakly alkaline AgNP-oil with cooling temperatures of −8 and 2.3 °C, respectively. Equilibrium concentrations for both particulate oils were found to be 0.08 and 2.7 M at the same yield stress of 2 lb./100 ft2, while the lubricities of the oils ranged from 0.119–0.154, 0.134–0.155 and 0.156–0.180 for the CuNP-, AgNP- and Copeland 46B oils, respectively. Since lower lubricities are indicative of better lubrication, it then implies that the CuNP-oils gave the best lubricities. An increase in the motor speed gave a corresponding increase in the torque generated as well as, the lubricity coefficients and lubricities of all the oils. Enthalpy changes ranged from 70.3–520 Jg/mol for the 1.1–2.1 M CuNP-oils, although, it was very high (4523.5 Jg/mol) for the 2.7 M CuNP-oil which may be due to the superficial distribution of copper as well as its large surface area to charge ratio at the oil surface, thus making it a better conductor of heat relative to the AgNP-oils. For the AgNp-oils, the enthalpy changes were very small i.e. from −1.012 – 1.2957 Jg/mol whereas, it was 523 Jg/mol for the Copeland oil. Furthermore, the least power consumption was obtained for the CuNP-oils.

Keywords

Coefficient of performance Nanoparticles Optimum concentration pH, Vapour compression system Yield stress 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to appreciate Covenant University, University of Johannesburg and Tshwane University of Technology for supporting this research with the required facilities/equipment.

Authors’ contributions

Samuel Sanni conceived this research, planned the experimental procedure, executed it as well as composed the manuscript. Simon Ovie carried out the experimentation, Oluseyi Ajayi shared useful hints on major parts of the work. Oluranti Agboola added valuable points that enhanced its outcome. Sam Adefila is also appreciated for his valuable input during the nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization stages. Patricia Popoola and Rotimi Sadiku helped with the SEM analyses and particle size estimation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Declaration of conflict of interest

From planning to execution stages, no fund was received from public agencies, commercial or non-profit organizations. However, on behalf of all authors, I, Samuel E Sanni, the corresponding author of the manuscript, hereby declare that there is no conflict of interest as regards the publication of this manuscript.

Supplementary material

231_2019_2746_MOESM1_ESM.docx (424 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 424 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Mishra R (2014) Methods for improving thermodynamic performance of vapour compression refrigeration system using twelve ecofriendly refrigerants in primary circuit and nanofluid (water-nano particles based) in secondary circuit. Int J Emerging Technol Adv Eng 4(6):878Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Raju J, Shashishekar K, Manohara S (2016) Experimental study of thermophysical properties of carboxylic acid group functionalized MWCNT nanofluid. Int Res J Eng Technol (IRJET) 03(11):1110–1111Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anand N, Arya M (2016) A Review on use of nano refrigerants in domestic refrigeration system for improvement in coefficient of performance and energy saving and green environment. Int J Sci Technol Eng 2(12):4882Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mohanraj M, Simon J, Muraleedharan C, Chandrasekar P (2009) Experimental investigation of R290/R600a mixture as an alternative to R134a in a domestic refrigerator. Int J Therm Sci 48(5):1036–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kumar R et al (2013) Heat transfer enhancement in domestic refrigerator using R600a/mineral oil/nano-Al2O3 as working fluid. Int J Comput Eng Res 3(4):42–50Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gunasekara SN, Kumova S, Chiu JN-W, Martin V (2017) Experimental phase diagram of dodecane-tridecane system as phase change material in cold storage. Int J Refrig 82:130–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bertsch SS, Groll EA, Garimella SV (2008) Refrigerant flow boiling heat transfer in parallel microchannels as a function of local vapor quality. Int J Heat Mass Transf 51:4775–4787zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dalkilic AS, Laohalertdecha S, Wongwises S (2008) Effect of void fraction models on the film thickness of r134a during downward condensation in a vertical smooth tube. Int Comm Heat Mass Transf 36:172–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ki T, Jeong S (2010) Optimal design of the pulse tube refrigerator with slit-type heat exchangers. Cryogenics 50:608–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kwark SM, Kumar R, Moreno G, Yoo J, You SM (2010) Pool boiling characteristics of low concentration nanofluids. Int J Heat Mass Transf 53:972–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee S, Mudawar I (2016) Investigation of flow boiling in large microchannel heat exchangers in a refrigeration loop for space applications. Int J Heat Mass Transf 97:110–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zafar S, Dincer I, Gadalla M (2017) Evaluation of thermophysical properties of refrigerant clathrates with additives. Int Comm Heat Mass Transf 89:165–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heiligtag FJ, Niederberger M (2013) The fascinating world of nanoparticle research. Mater Today:262–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pawale KT, Dhumal A, Kerkal GM (2017) Performance analysis of vapour compression refrigeration system (vcrs) with nano-refrigerant. Int Res J Eng Technol (IRJET) 4(4):1031Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Murdock RC, Braydich-Stolle L, Schrand AM, Schlager JJ, Hussain SM (2008) Characterization of nanomaterial dispersion in solution prior to In vitro exposure using dynamic light scattering technique. Toxicol Sci 101(2):239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jiang JK, Oberdörster G, Biswas P (2009) Characterization of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies. J Nanopart Res 11(1):77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Labille J, Masion A, Ziarelli F, Rose J, Brant J, Villieras F et al (2009) Hydration and dispersion of C-60 in aqueous systems: The nature of water-fullerene interactions. Langmuir 25(19):11232–11235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Park BS, Smith DM, Thoma SG (1993) Determination of agglomerate strength distributions. 4. Analysis of multimodal particle size distributions. Powder Technol 76(2):125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hielscher T 2005 Ultrasonic production of nano-size dispersions and emulsions. ENS’05, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mandzy N, Grulke E, Druffel T (2005) Breakage of TiO2 agglomerates in electrostatically stabilized aqueous dispersions. Powder Technol 160(2):121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang X-Q, Mujumdar AS (2007) Heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids: a review. Int J Therm Sci 46:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saidur R, Kazi S, Hossain M, Rahman M, Mohammed H 2011 A Review on the performance of nanoparticles suspended with refrigerants and lubricating oils in refrigeration systems. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev., 310–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kamyar A, Saidur R, Hasanuzzaman M (2012) Application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for nanofluids. Int J Heat Mass Transf:4104–4115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pirahmadian MH, Ebrahimi A (2012) Theoretical investigation of heat transfer mechanisms in nanofluids and the effects of clustering on thermal conductivity. Int J Biosci, Biochem Bioinformatics:2–5Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kotu T, Kumar R (2013) Comparison of heat transfer performance in domestic refrigerator using nanorefrigerants & double pipe heat exchanger. Int J Mech Ind Eng 3(2):67–73Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Majgaonkar A (2016) Use of nanoparticles in refrigeration systems: a literature review paper. In: 16th International conference on refrigeration and airconditioning, 2318, pp. 1-9, Purdue University,Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Carl E, Salas PE, Salas M (1992) Modern Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. Fairmont Press Inc., IndiaGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Damola SA, Olayinka SO, Tiawo OB, Moradeyo KO, Richard OL, Sunday O (2017) Experimental performance of LPG refrigerant charges with varied concentration of TiO2 nano-lubricants in a domestic refrigerator. Case Studies Therm Eng 9:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ferreira M, Benringer R, Jost R (1995) Instrumental method for characterizing protein foams. J Food Sci 60:90–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chang YI, Chen TC (2000) Functional and gel characteristics of liquid whole egg as affected by pH alteration. J Food Eng 45:237–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hammershoj M, Peters LV, Andersen HJ (2004) The significance of critical processing steps on the production of dried egg albumen powder on gel textural and foaming properties. J Sci Food Agric 84:1039–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Philips LG, Haque Z, Kinsella JE (1987) A method for the measurement of foam formation and stability. J Food Sci 52:1074–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang X-F, Liu ZG, Shen W, Gurunathan S (2016) Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, properties, applications, and therapeutic approaches. Int J Mol Sci 17(9):1534–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Summer-Smith D (1967) Selection of lubricant viscosity grade for reciprocating gas compressors. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 182:11–17Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kuljeet S, Kundan L (2014) An investigation into the performance of a nanorefrigerant. International Journal of Res Mech Eng & Technol 4(2):158–160Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fadhilah SA, Marhamah RS, Izzat AM (2014) Copper nanoparticles for advanced refrigerant thermophysical properties: mathematical modelling. J Nanoparticles 10(1155):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Subramani N et al (2013) Performance studies on vapour compression refrigeration system using nanolubricant. Int J Innov Res Sci, Eng Technol 2(1):522–530Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kumar D, Elansezhian R (2014) ZnO nanorefrigerant in R152a refrigeration systems for energy conservation & green environment. Front Mech Eng.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-014-0285-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Javadi FS, Saidur R (2013) Energetic, economic and environmental impacts of using nanorefrigerant in domestic refrigerators in Malaysia. Energy Convers Manag 73:335–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Russell A, Lee K (2005) Structure-property relations in nonferrous metals. Wiley-Interscience, 302Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    George L, Edmund HI (1992) Encyclopedia of applied physics, pp. 267-272Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hammond CR (2004) The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. In R. L. David (Ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Arkoudeas P, Karonis D, Zannikos F, Lois E (2014) Review: Lubricity assessment of gasoline fuels. Fuel Process Technol 122:107–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sajumon K et al (2013) Performance analysis of nanofluid based lubricants. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol 2(1):832–838Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gonzalez JM, Quintero F, Marquez RL, Rosales SD, Quercia BG (2011) Formulation effects on the lubricity of o/w emulsions used as oil well working fluids. In: G. Biresaw, & K. L. Mittal (Eds.), Surfactants in Tribology, 2: 241-265, CRC Press. 10.1201/b10868-14Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fariasa ACM, Medeirosa AAS, Júniorb JJO, Alvesa SM (2015) Correlation between fuel lubricity and vibration signals obtained in ball-disc analysis using Fourier transform. Mater Res 18((Suppl 2)):210–219.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-1439.368414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Uflyand IE, ZhinZhilo VA, Victoria E, Burlakova VE (2019) Metal-containing nanomaterials as lubricant additives: State-of-the-art and future development. Friction 7(2):93–116.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40544-019-0261-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Michael JM, Shapiro H (1992) Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics (7th ed.). John Wiley and Sons Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Aoki M, Ring TA, Haggerty JS (1987) Analysis and modeling of the ultrasonic dispersion technique. Adv Ceram Mater 2(3A):209–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vasylkiv O, Sakka Y (2001) Synthesis and colloidal processing of zirconia nanopowder. J Am Ceram Soc 84(11):2489–2494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bihari P, Vippola M, Schultes S, Praetner M, Khandoga AG, Reichel CA et al (2008) Optimized dispersion of nanoparticles for biological in vitro and in vivo studies. Part Fibre Toxicol 5:14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Murdock RC, Braydich-Stolle L, Schrand AM, Schlager JJ, Hussain SM (2008) Characterization of nanomaterial dispersion in solution prior to in vitro exposure using dynamic light scattering technique. Toxicol Sci 101(2):239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Forrest GA, Alexander AJ (2007) A model for the dependence of carbon nanotube length on acid oxidation time. J Phys Chem C 111(29):10792–10798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Huang YY, Knowles TPJ, Terentjev EM (2009) Strength of nanotubes, filaments, and nanowires from sonication-induced scission. Adv Mater 21(38–39):3945–3948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lucas A, Zakri C, Maugey M, Pasquali M, van der Schoot P, Poulin P (2009) Kinetics of nanotube and microfiber scission under sonication. J Phys Chem C 113(48):20599–20605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mason TJ (1989) Sonochemistry: Theory, applications and uses of ultrasound in chemistry. Ellis Horwood, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mason TJ, Peters D (2003) Practical sonochemistry: Power ultrasound uses and applications. Ellis Horwood, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yanagida H, Masubuchi Y, Minagawa K, Ogata T, Takimoto J, Koyama K (1999) A reaction kinetics model of water sonolysis in the presence of a spin-trap. Ultrason Sonochem 5(4):133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brown B, Goodman J (1965) High intensity ultrasonics: Industrial applications. D. Van Nostrand Company, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Berber S, Tomanek D (2009) Hydrogen-induced disintegration of fullerenes and nanotubes: An ab initio study. Phys Rev B 80(7):075421–075425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wijnhoven SWP, Peijnenburg WJGM, Herberts CA, Hagens WI, Oomen AG, Heugens EHW et al (2009) Nano-silver – a review of available data and knowledge gaps in human and environmental risk assessment. Nanotoxicology 3(2):109–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Elzey S, Grassian VH (2010) Agglomeration, isolation and dissolution of commercially manufactured silver nanoparticles in aqueous environments. J Nanopart Res 12(5):1945–1958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Taurozzi JS, Hackley VA, Wiesner MR (2010a) CEINT/NIST Protocol for the preparation of nanoparticle dispersions from powdered material using ultrasonic disruptionGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Basedow AM, Ebert KH (1979) Effects of mechanical stress on the reactivity of polymers – activation of acid-hydrolysis of dextran by ultrasound. Polym Bull 1(4):299–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lorimer JP, Mason TJ, Cuthbert TC, Brookfield EA (1995) Effect of ultrasound on the degradation of aqueous native dextran. Ultrason Sonochem 2(1):S55–S57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kawasaki H, Takeda Y, Arakawa R (2007) Mass spectrometric analysis for high molecular weight synthetic polymers using ultrasonic degradation and the mechanism of degradation. Anal Chem 79(11):4182–4187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kondo T, Kuwabara M, Sato F, Kano E (1986) Influence of dissolved gases on chemical and biological effects of ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol 12(2):151–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Honda H, Zhao QL, Kondo T (2002) Effects of dissolved gases and an echo contrast agent on apoptosis induced by ultrasound and its mechanism via the mitochondria-caspase pathway. Ultrasound Med Biol 28(5):673–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mason TJ (1991) Practical sonochemistry: User’s guide to applications in chemistry and chemical engineering. Ellis Horwood, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Padgurskas J, Rukuiza R, Prosycevas I, Kreuvaitis R (2013) Tribological properties of lubricant additives of Fe, Cu and Co nanoparticles. Tribol Int 60:224–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Borda FLG, de Oliveira SJR, Lazaro LMSM, Leiróz AJK (2018) Experimental investigation of the tribological behavior of lubricants with additive containing copper nanoparticles. Tribol Int 117:52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Garg P, Kumar A (2017) Thakre GD, Arya P K, Jain A K. Investigating efficacy of Cu nano-particles as additive for bio-lubricants. Macromol Symp 376:1700010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gaur MK, Singh SK, Sood A, Chauhan DS 2019 Advances in design, simulation and manufacturing. Ivanov V, Rong Y, Trojanowska J, Venus J, Liaposhchenko O, Zajac J, Pavlenko I, Edl M, Perakovic D, eds. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ghaednia H, Babaei H, Jackson RL, Bozack MJ, Khodadadi J (2013) The effect of nanoparticles on thin film elastohydrodynamic lubrication. Appl Phys Lett 103:263111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kalyani R, Chockalingam G, Gurunathan K (2016) Tribological aspects of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. Adv Sci Eng Medicine 8:228–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Meng HN, Zhang ZZ, Zhao FX, Qiu T, Zhu X, Lu XJ (2015) Tribological behaviours of Cu nanoparticles recovered from electroplating effluent as lubricant additive. Tribol – Mater Surf Interfaces 9:46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Li Y, Liu TT, Zhang Y, Zhang P, Zhang S (2018) Study on the tribological behaviors of copper nanoparticles in three kinds of commercially available lubricants. Ind Lubr Tribol 70:519–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Najan AB, Navthar RR, Gitay MJ (2017) Experimental Investigation of tribological properties using nanoparticles as modifiers in lubricating oil. Int Res J Eng Technol (IRJET) 4:1125–1129Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Songmei Y, Xuebo H, Guangyuan Z, Amin M (2014) A novel approach of applying copper nanoparticles in minimum quantity lubrication for milling of Ti-6Al-4V. Adv Prod Eng Manag 12:139–150Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zhang X-M, Yang X-P, Ouyang P (2017) Research progress in copper-containing micro and nano particles as lubricating additives. Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chem Ind 34:53–56Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Yang G, Zhang Z, Zhang S, Yu L, Zhang P (2013) Synthesis and characterization of highly stable dispersions of copper nanoparticles by a novel one-pot method. Mater Res Bull 48:1716–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hu H, Peng H, Ding G (2013) Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant/nanolubricant mixture with surfactant. Int J Refrig 36:1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Zhang C, Zhang S, Song S, Yang G, Yu L, Wu Z, Li X, Zhang P (2014) Preparation and tribological properties of surfacecapped copper nanoparticle as a water-based lubricant additive. Tribol Lett 54:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nan F, Xu Y, Xu B, Gao F, Wu Y, Li Z (2015) Effect of Cu Nanoparticles on the tribological performance of attapulgite base grease. Tribol Trans 58:1031–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Thapliyal P, Kumar A, Thakre GD, Jain AK (2017) Investigation of rheological parameters of lubricants and contact fatigue behavior of steel in the presence of Cu nano-particles. Macromol Symp 376:1700011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Song H, Huang J, Jia X, Sheng W (2018) Facile synthesis of core-shell Ag@C nanospheres with improved tribological properties for water-based additives. New J Chem 42:8773–8782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Beckford S, Cai J, Chen J, Zou M (2014) Use of Au Nanoparticle filled PTFE films to produce low-friction and low-wear surface coatings. Tribol Lett 56:223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kumara C, Luo H, Leonard DN, Meyer HM, Qu J (2017) Organic-modified silver nanoparticles as lubricant additives. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:37227–37237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Scherge M, Böttcher R, Kürten D, Linsler D (2016) Multi-Phase friction and wear reduction by copper nanopartices. Lubricants 4:36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wang XL, Yin YL, Zhang GN, Wang WY, Zhao KK (2013) Study on antiwear and repairing performances about mass of nano-copper lubricating additives to 45 Steel. Phys Procedia 50:466–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wang J, Guo X, He Y, Jiang M, Sun R (2017) The synthesis and tribological characteristics of triangular copper nanoplates as a grease additive. RSC Adv 7:40249–40254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yang G, Zhang Z, Zhang S, Yu L, Zhang P, Hou Y (2013) Preparation and characterization of copper nanoparticles surface-capped by alkanethiols. Surf Interface Anal 45:1695–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Maidul-Islam AKM, Mukherjee M (2011) Effect of temperature in synthesis of silver nanoparticles in triblock copolymer micellar solution. J Exp Nanosci 6(6):596–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations