Influence of clay nanoparticles on hindering the undesirable solidification process

  • Hoda AslaniEmail author
  • Mohammad Moghiman


Considering equipment damage, energy consumption enhancement and efficiency reduction during undesirable solidification process, this paper experimentally investigated the ability of clay nanoparticles to hinder the solidification procedure. The nanofluids were prepared by dispersing various concentrations of clay nanoparticles (0.01 wt.%, 0.02 wt.% and 0.04 wt.%) in deionized water without any dispersants. The solidification characteristics of nanofluids were determined by using cooling generator system. The experimental results of clay nanofluids showed a reduction in the nucleation temperature and an enhancement of supercooling degree of about 25% during solidification process due to reduction in heat transport properties. According to the comparison results, it was construed that providing supercooling condition, lower density nanoparticles are more able to advance in nucleation phenomenon and also higher thermal conductivity nanoparticles have more tendency to reduce supercooling degree. Therefore, considering desirable and undesirable solidification, the best possible candidate of nanoparticles can be utilized based on their thermophysical properties.


Solidification Supercooling degree Clay Nanofluid Thermophysical properties 



Phase change enthalpy, kJ.


Total errors.


Thermal conductivity, W.m−1 K−1.

\( \dot{Q} \)R

Cooling rate of refrigerator, kW.


Standard error.


Phase change temperature, K.


Nucleation temperature, K.


Time, S.


Measuring value.

\( \overline{X} \)

Average measuring value.

Greek symbols


Density, kg.m−-3.


Sample standard deviation.


Volume fraction.










Enhancement of Supercooling Degree


Mean Deviation


Onset Nucleation Time, S


Onset Nucleation Time Ratio


Random Error


Supercooling Degree, oC


Supercooling Degree Ratio


Systematic Error


Whole Solidification Time, S


Whole Solidification Time Ratio



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

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