The effect of magnetic nano-fluids (Fe3O4) on the heat transfer enhancement in a pipe with laminar flow
- 26 Downloads
In this research, the effect of magnetic nano-fluids (Fe3O4) on the heat transfer enhancement in a pipe with laminar flows (Re numbers of 171, 228 and 285) were examined. Different heats (15.75 and 20.6 W) were applied to an acrylic pipe to analyse the effect of magnetic nano-fluids for transferring the heat and reducing the wall temperature on a non-metal material pipe. Variations of nano-particles (volume percentage) were used in the nano-fluids solution: 2, 3 and 4%, respectively. The magnetic nano-fluids (Fe3O4) were prepared from 32.5 g of FeCl3.6H2O (ferric chloride) and 12.7 g of FeCl2.4 H2O (ferrous chloride) by using a co-precipitation method. The material characterisations using XRD and FE-SEM confirmed that Fe3O4 single phase occurred and shown that the average size diameters of the nano-particles are within a range of 20-40 nm. The experimental results suggested that the cooling capability can be enhanced by adding magnetic nano-particles controlled by permanent magnet and increasing the heat transfer in the magnetic nano-fluids system. The aggregation of the magnetic nano-particles following the magnetic field applied from the permanent magnet increases the convection heat transfer from the heating source to the nano-fluids, and thus reducing the wall temperature of the acrylic pipe.
Magnetic flux density (T)
Coefficient of convection (W/m2.oC)
Current generated by DC power supply (A)
Current density (A/m2)
Thermal conductivity (W/m.oC)
length of the pipe (m)
Heat generated by the heating source (W)
Heat flux supplied to the pipe (W/m2)
Voltage generated by DC power supply (V)
The authors would like to thank the Research Center for Physics-Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) for the facilities used in this research.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
- 13.Javadpour A, Najafi M, Javaherdeh K (2018) Effect of magnetic field on forced convection heat transfer of a non-Newtonian nanofluid through an annulus: an experimental study. Heat Mass TransfGoogle Scholar
- 19.Hwang KS, Jang SP, Choi SUS (2009) Experimental Investigation of convective heat transfer agumentation using Al2O3/water nanofluid in circular pipe. Int J Heat Mass Transf 51:1237–1246Google Scholar
- 41.Zonouzi SA, Khodabandeh R, Safarzadeh H, Aminfar H, Trushkina Y, Mohammadpourfard M, Ghanbarpour M, Alvarez GS (2018) Experimental investigation of the flow and heat transfer of magnetic nanofluid in a vertical tube in the presence of magnetic quadrupole field. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 91:155–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.D. Meeker (2018) Finite Element Method Magnetics, Version 4.2, User’s ManualGoogle Scholar