The effect of magnetic nano-fluids (Fe3O4) on the heat transfer enhancement in a pipe with laminar flow

  • Anggito P. TetukoEmail author
  • Silviana Simbolon
  • Tri G. Sitorus
  • Reggy Zurcher
  • Rizki K. Hadi
  • Eko A. Setiadi
  • Candra Kurniawan
  • Masno Ginting
  • Perdamean Sebayang
Original Article


In this research, the effect of magnetic nano-fluids (Fe3O4) on the heat transfer enhancement in a pipe with laminar flows (Re numbers of 171, 228 and 285) were examined. Different heats (15.75 and 20.6 W) were applied to an acrylic pipe to analyse the effect of magnetic nano-fluids for transferring the heat and reducing the wall temperature on a non-metal material pipe. Variations of nano-particles (volume percentage) were used in the nano-fluids solution: 2, 3 and 4%, respectively. The magnetic nano-fluids (Fe3O4) were prepared from 32.5 g of FeCl3.6H2O (ferric chloride) and 12.7 g of FeCl2.4 H2O (ferrous chloride) by using a co-precipitation method. The material characterisations using XRD and FE-SEM confirmed that Fe3O4 single phase occurred and shown that the average size diameters of the nano-particles are within a range of 20-40 nm. The experimental results suggested that the cooling capability can be enhanced by adding magnetic nano-particles controlled by permanent magnet and increasing the heat transfer in the magnetic nano-fluids system. The aggregation of the magnetic nano-particles following the magnetic field applied from the permanent magnet increases the convection heat transfer from the heating source to the nano-fluids, and thus reducing the wall temperature of the acrylic pipe.



Area (m2)


Magnetic flux density (T)


Diameter (m)


Coefficient of convection (W/m2.oC)


Current generated by DC power supply (A)


Current density (A/m2)


Thermal conductivity (W/m.oC)


length of the pipe (m)


Nusselt number


Heat generated by the heating source (W)


Heat flux supplied to the pipe (W/m2)


Temperature (°C)


Voltage generated by DC power supply (V)

Greek symbol


Magnetic permeability














The authors would like to thank the Research Center for Physics-Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) for the facilities used in this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anggito P. Tetuko
    • 1
    Email author
  • Silviana Simbolon
    • 1
  • Tri G. Sitorus
    • 2
  • Reggy Zurcher
    • 2
  • Rizki K. Hadi
    • 1
  • Eko A. Setiadi
    • 1
  • Candra Kurniawan
    • 1
  • Masno Ginting
    • 1
  • Perdamean Sebayang
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Center for PhysicsIndonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)Tangerang SelatanIndonesia
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural SciencesUniversity of Sumatera UtaraMedanIndonesia

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