Experimental investigation on forced convection heat transfer of ferrofluid between two-parallel plates

  • Milad Valitabar
  • Masoud Rahimi
  • Neda AzimiEmail author


This study presents an experimental investigation on forced convection heat transfer of ferrofluid between two parallel-plates in the presence of a static magnetic field (SMF). The heat transfer between two parallel-aluminum plates is studied, which heat source with a constant heat flux is applied on the bottom plate. The process of heat transfer is examined for DI-water and ferrofluid in the absence and the presence of the magnetic field. The heat transfer characteristics at the different flow rates, magnet distance from the test section (d = 2–80 mm) and nanoparticle volume fractions (ϕ = 0.25–2%wt) are compared to those of pure water. The results depicted that the heat transfer coefficient (h) and Nusselt number (Nu) of ferrofluid are higher than DI-water. In addition, the results show that applying SMF could enhance the convective heat transfer rate and it decreased by an increase in d that means the decrease in the magnetic field strength. The increase in the nanoparticle volume fraction leads to higher heat transfer enhancement. The maximum value of the heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number are achieved for SMF with d = 2 mm and ϕ = 1% wt.



Magnetic field induction (mT)


Specific heat (J/kg.°C)


Hydraulic diameter of the microchannel (m)


Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2. °C)


Thermal conductivity of fluid (W/m.°C)


Nusselt number (−)


Total heat power (W)


Heat flux based on thermal power (W/m2)


Temperature (°C)

\( \dot{m} \)

The mass flow rate of fluid flow (kg/s)


Fluid velocity (m/s)

Greek letters


Volume fraction of nanoparticles (−)


Viscosity of based-fluid (Pa s)


Viscosity of ferrofluid (Pa s)


Density of based-fluid (kg/m3)


Density of ferrofluid (kg/m3)


Density of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (kg/m3)



Average value











Magnetic nanoparticles


Static magnetic field



The authors would like to thank Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch for providing the support to carry out this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Kermanshah BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKermanshahIran
  2. 2.CFD research Center, Chemical Engineering DepartmentRazi UniversityKermanshahIran

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