Experimental investigation of a packed-bed thermal energy storage system fitted with perforated cylindrical elements

  • Anshul Kunwar
  • Manoj Kumar
  • Ashutosh Gupta
  • Chidanand K. Mangrulkar
  • Sunil ChamoliEmail author


The intermittent requirement of the energy systems like process heating, district heating, and power generation provides the motivation to develop a stable thermal energy storage system. This work presents the experimental results obtained from a sensible thermal energy storage system configured with concrete perforated cylindrical blocks. The perforated cylinders inside the bed are arranged in the staggered arrangement. The geometrical parameters of perforated cylinder blocks are the number of perforations (Nh) ranges from 2 to 6 and the perforation ratio (Dr) ranges from 0.2 to 0.6, respectively. The flow Reynolds number (Re) in the present study ranges from 1200 to 3200. The research results reported the maximum Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f) obtained at Dr = 0.6 and Nh = 6, respectively. The maximum thermo-hydraulic performance (η) of 0.19 is obtained for Dr = 0.6, and Nh = 6 at Re = 1200, respectively. The perforated cylindrical elements are found suitable for the thermal and momentum transport improvement of the thermal storage packed bed system.



Area of orifice (m2)


Coefficient of discharge of orifice meter


Specific heat of fluid (J/kg-K)


Diameter of element (m)


Diameter of perforation (m)


Perforation Ratio (Dimensionless)


Friction factor (Dimensionless)


Mass velocity (kg/sm2)


Volumetric heat transfer coefficient (W/m3K)

\( {h}_v^{\ast } \)

Apparent volumetric heat transfer coefficient (W/m3K)


Head loss in orifice meter, m


Thermal conductivity of concrete (W/m-K)


Length of element (m)

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow rate of air (kg/s)


Tilt angle of U-tube manometer (degree)


Reynolds Number


Stanton Number


Numbers of perforation (Dimensionless)


Pressure drop across orifice meter (N/m2)


Pressure drop across the bed (N/m2)


Net Heat stored (J)


Phase change material


Computational fluid dynamics


Average temperature of air in the bed (K)


Mean temperature of bed (K)

\( {\overline{T}}_o \)

Average temperature of air at bed outlet (K)


Inlet temperature of bed (K)

\( {\overline{T}}_i \)

Average temperature of air at bed inlet (K)


Average surface temperature of solid in the bed (K)


Volume of element (m3)


Volume of bed (m3)

Greek symbols


Ratio of orifice and pipe diameter


Void fraction of bed


Density of air (kg/m3)


Heat Capacity of element (kJ/m3K)


Thermo-hydraulic performance parameter

Important numbers


Nusselt number



Fast moving consumer goods


Thermal energy storage


Adiabatic compressed air energy storage system


Concentrated solar power



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anshul Kunwar
    • 1
  • Manoj Kumar
    • 1
  • Ashutosh Gupta
    • 2
  • Chidanand K. Mangrulkar
    • 3
  • Sunil Chamoli
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentDIT UniversityDehradunIndia
  2. 2.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentGovind Ballabh Pant Institute of Engineering & TechnologyPauri-GarhwalIndia
  3. 3.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentVisvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (V.N.I.T.)NagpurIndia

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