Advertisement

Stationary stall phenomenon and pressure fluctuation in a centrifugal pump at partial load condition

  • Xuanming Ren
  • Honggang Fan
  • Zhifeng XieEmail author
  • Bing Liu
Original
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

Stall is a common flow phenomenon in the rotating machinery under partial load conditions. The stall phenomenon can seriously affect the operation efficiency and stability of the machinery. In the present research, the stall phenomenon in a centrifugal pump is numerically studied using the SST k-ω turbulence model. In the present work, four different flow rates (1.0 Qd, 0.7 Qd, 0.5 Qd and 0.3 Qd, where Qd is the design flow rate) are investigated, and results reveal that with the decreasing of flow rate, the stall can be divided into the preliminary stall and stationary stall according to the flow structure. When the flow rate decreases to 0.5, the vortexes become strong, but not occupy the whole passage, which is defined as the preliminary stall. When the flow rate further decreases to 0.3 Qd, a fully developed stationary stall appears. Under this condition, the periodic process of stationary stall can be classified into four stages: incepting stage, developing stage, shedding stage and decaying stage. The dominant frequencies of pressure fluctuations under stationary stall conditions are fi, and the maximum amplitudes of pressure fluctuations of PS4 and PS5 at 0.3 Qd are about 5 times that at 1.0 Qd due to the trailing edge vortexes at the blade outlet.

Nomenclature

d2

Outlet width of impeller

d3

Inlet width of volute (mm)

Dj

Inlet diameter of impeller (mm)

D2

Outer diameter of impeller (mm)

D3

Inlet diameter of volute (mm)

EQ

Uncertainties of flow measurement

EH

Head measurement

ET

Shaft power

H

Design head (m)

n

Rotating speed (r/min)

ns

Specific speed

Qd

Design flow rate (m3/h)

T

Time of an impeller revolution (s)

Tb

Time that two adjacent blades pass through the same position (s)

V

Mean velocity at the outlet of suction pipe (m/s)

Z

Blade number

η

Efficiency

ρ

Density of fluid (kg/m3)

μ

Dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pa·s)

Δt

Time steps (s)

α

Incidence angle

p

Pressure (pa)

u

Velocity vector

μt

Turbulent viscosity (Pa·s)

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant number 51879140], the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering [Grant number 2018-KY-02], the Open Research Fund Program of State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering [Grant number sklhse-2018-E-01], the Key Laboratory of Fluid and Power Machinery (Xihua University), Ministry of Education [Grant number szjj-2017-100-1-004].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Tan L, Zhu B, Cao S, Wang Y, Wang B (2014) Numerical simulation of unsteady cavitation flow in a centrifugal pump at off-design conditions. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C-Journal of mechanical engineering science 228(11):1994–2006Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tan L, Zhu B, Wang Y, Cao S, Gui S (2015) Numerical study on characteristics of unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump volute at partial load condition. Eng Comput 32(6):1549–1566Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Feng J, Benra F, Dohmen H (2011) Unsteady flow visualization at part-load conditions of a radial diffuser pump: by PIV and CFD. J Fluids EngGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhou P, Wang F, Mou J (2017) Investigation of rotating stall characteristics in a centrifugal pump impeller at low flow rates. Eng Comput 2:00–00Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang Y, Wu Y (2016) A review of rotating stall in reversible pump turbine. ARCHIVE Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part C Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 1989–1996 (vols 203–210), 231(7):1181–1204Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ljevar S, Lange HCD, Steenhoven AAV (2014) Two-dimensional rotating stall analysis in a wide vaneless diffuser. International Journal of Rotating Machinery 2006(15):3109–3126Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ferrara G., Ferrari L., Mengoni C. P, et al. Experimental Investigation and Characterization of the Rotating Stall in a High Pressure Centrifugal Compressor: Part I — Influence of Diffuser Geometry on Stall Inception. ASME Turbo Expo 2003, collocated with the 2003 International Joint Power Generation Conference, pp. 21–42Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cellai A., Ferrara G, Ferrari L, et al (2003) Experimental Investigation and Characterization of the Rotating Stall in a High Pressure Centrifugal Compressor: Part IV — Impeller Influence on Diffuser Stability. ASME Turbo Expo 2003, collocated with the 2003 International Joint Power Generation Conference, pp. 21–42Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gao C, Gu C, Wang T et al (2008) Analysis of Geometries' effects on rotating stall in vaneless diffuser with wavelet neural networks. International Journal of Rotating Machinery 2007(1):10Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sinha M, Katz J (2000) Quantitative visualization of the flow in a centrifugal pump with diffuser vanes—I: on flow structures and turbulence. J Fluids Eng 122(1):97–107Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sinha M, Pinarbasi A, Katz J (2001) The flow structure during onset and developed states of rotating stall within a Vaned diffuser of a centrifugal pump. J Fluids Eng 123(3):490–499Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Akhras A, Hajem ME, Champagne JY et al (2004) The flow rate influence on the interaction of a radial pump impeller and the diffuser. International Journal of Rotating Machinery 10(4):309–317Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sano T, Yoshida Y, Tsujimoto Y et al (2002) Numerical study of rotating stall in a pump Vaned diffuser. J Fluids Eng 124(2):192–201Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sano T, Yuki N, Yoshida Y et al (2004) Alternate blade stall and rotating stall in a Vaned diffuser. JSME Int J 45(4):810–819Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hasmatuchi V, Farhat M, Roth S et al (2011) Experimental evidence of rotating stall in a pump-turbine at off-design conditions in generating mode. J Fluids Eng 133(5):623–635Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lucius A, Brenner G (2011) Numerical simulation and evaluation of velocity fluctuations during rotating stall of a centrifugal pump. J Fluids Eng 133(8):081102Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dazin A, Cavazzini G, Pavesi G et al (2011) High-speed stereoscopic PIV study of rotating instabilities in a radial vaneless diffuser. Exp Fluids 51(1):83–93Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rikke KB, Jacobsen CB (2003) Nicholas Pedersen. Flow in a centrifugal pump impeller at design and off-design conditions—part II: large Eddy simulations. J Fluids Eng 125(1):73–83Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Johnson DA, Pedersen N, Jacobsen CB (2005) Measurements of Rotating Stall inside a Centrifugal Pump Impeller. ASME 2005 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting. Am Soc Mech Eng, pp. 1281–1288Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krause N, Zähringer K, Pap E (2005) Time-resolved particle imaging velocimetry for the investigation of rotating stall in a radial pump. Exp Fluids 39(2):192–201Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Berten S, Dupont P, Fabre L et al (2009) Experimental investigation of flow instabilities and rotating stall in a high-energy centrifugal pump stage. Proceedings of FEDSM 2009:505–513Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Widmer C, Staubli T, Ledergerber N (2011) Unstable characteristics and rotating stall in turbine brake operation of pump-turbines. J Fluids Eng 133(4):041101Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xu Y, Tan L, Cao S, Qu W (2017) Multiparameter and multiobjective optimization design of centrifugal pump based on orthogonal method. Proc Inst Mech Eng C J Mech Eng Sci 231(14):2569–2579Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tan L, Xie ZF, Liu YB, Hao Y, Xu Y (2018) Influence of T-shape tip clearance on performance of a mixed-flow pump [J]. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of power and energy 232(4):386–396Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tan L, Cao S, Wang Y, Zhu B (2012) Direct and inverse iterative design method for centrifugal pump impellers. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of power and energy 226(6):764–775Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tan L, Yu Z, Xu Y, Liu Y, Cao S (2017) Role of blade rotational angle on energy performance and pressure fluctuation of a mixed-flow pump. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy 231(3):227–238Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hao Y, Tan L, Liu Y, Xu Y, Zhang J, Zhu B (2017) Energy performance and radial force of a mixed-flow pump with symmetrical and unsymmetrical tip clearances. Energies 10(1):57Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu Y, Tan L, Hao Y, Xu Y (2017) Energy performance and flow patterns of a mixed-flow pump with different tip clearance sizes. Energies 10(2):191Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hao Y, Tan L (2018) Symmetrical and unsymmetrical tip clearances on cavitation performance and radial force of a mixed flow pump as turbine at pump mode. Renew Energy 127:368–376Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu Y, Tan L (2018) Tip clearance on pressure fluctuation intensity and vortex characteristic of a mixed flow pump as turbine at pump mode. Renew Energy 129:606–615Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lucius A, Brenner G (2010) Unsteady CFD simulations of a pump in part load conditions using scale-adaptive simulation. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 31(6):1113–1118Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liu Y, Tan L (2018) Method of C groove on vortex suppression and energy performance improvement for a NACA0009 hydrofoil with tip clearance in tidal energy. Energy 155:448–461Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu M, Tan L, Cao SL (2019) Cavitation-vortex-turbulence interaction and one-dimensional model prediction of pressure for hydrofoil ALE15 by large eddy simulation. ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering 141(2):021103-1-17Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuanming Ren
    • 1
    • 2
  • Honggang Fan
    • 1
  • Zhifeng Xie
    • 3
    Email author
  • Bing Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Energy and Power EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Mechanical and Electronic EngineeringShandong University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  3. 3.School of Aerospace EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations