Advertisement

Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 8, pp 2173–2184 | Cite as

Determination of the drying kinetics and energy efficiency of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves using different drying methods

  • Kadriye AltayEmail author
  • Ali Adnan Hayaloglu
  • Safiye Nur Dirim
Original

Abstract

In this work, the effects of different drying methods, namely sun, freeze, convective and microwave oven drying on the drying time, rate and kinetics were investigated in purple basil leaves. Additionally, the energy efficiencies of the driers were determined. All the drying processes took place mainly in the falling-rate period. Comparatively, higher drying rates were obtained from microwave oven drying of the samples. Eleven thin-layer drying models, (Lewis, Page, Modified Page I, Henderson and Pabis, Modified Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Midilli, Modified Midilli, Two-Term, Two-Term Exponential, and Wang and Singh) were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio data. Handerson and Pabis for freeze drying, logarithmic for sun drying and Page for convective and microwave oven drying were found to be the best models for explaining the drying behavior of the purple basil leaves with the highest R2 and lowest RMSE values. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values of the dried purple basil leaves were calculated with Fick’s diffusion model and ranged from 1.62 × 10−9 to 7.09 × 10−8 m2/s. The energy efficiency of microwave oven drying was higher than the other methods.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock (Project no: TAGEM Ar-Ge/16-61).

References

  1. 1.
    Telci I, Bayram E, Yilmaz G, Avci B (2006) Variability in essential oil composition of Turkish basils (Ocimum basilicum L.). Biochem Syst Ecol 34:489–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Diaz-Maroto MC, Sánchez Palomo E, Castro L, Viñas G, Pérez-Coello MS (2004) Changes produced in the aroma compounds and structural integrity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) during drying. J Sci Food Agric 84(15):2070–2076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Calín-Sánchez A, Lech K, Szumny A, Figiel A, Carbonell-Barrachina AA (2012) Volatile composition of sweet basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.) as affected by drying method. Food Res Int 48:217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Orphanides A, Goulas V, Gekas V (2016) Drying technologies: vehicle to high-quality herbs. Food Eng Rev 8:164–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    El-Sebaii AA, Shalaby SM (2012) Solar drying of agricultural products: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16(1):37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gao Q, Wu C, Wang M, Xu B, Du L (2012) Effect of drying of jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba mill.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, a-tocopherol, b-carotene, and phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 60(38):9642–9648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hamrouni-Sallami I, Rahali FZ, Rebey IB, Bourgou S, Lomam F, Marzouk B (2013) Total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants as affected by different drying method. Food Bioprocess Technol 6:806–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ozkan IA, Akbudak B, Akbudak N (2007) Microwave drying characteristics of spinach. J Food Eng 78(2):577–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Demirhan E, Özbek B (2010) Microwave-drying characteristics of basil. J Food Process Preserv 34:476–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ozturk S, Sakiyan O, Alifaki YO (2017) Dielectric properties and microwave and infrared-microwave combination drying characteristics of banana and kiwifruit. J Food Process Eng 40(3):944–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chandrasekaran S, Ramanathan S, Basak T (2013) Microwave food processing – a review. Food Res Int 52(1):243–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Feng H, Yin Y, Tang J (2012) Microwave drying of food and agricultural materials: basics and heat and mass transfer modeling. Food Eng Rev 4(2):89–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kadam DM, Goyal RK, Gupta MK (2011a) Mathematical modeling of convective thin layer drying of basil leaves. J Med Plant Res 5(19):4721–4730Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pirbalouti AG, Mahdad E, Craker L (2013) Effects of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative properties of essential oil of two basil landraces. Food Chem 141:2440–2449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yousif AN, Scaman CH, Durance TD, Girard B (1999) Flavor volatiles and physical properties of vacuum-microwave- and air-dried sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J Agric Food Chem 47:4777–4781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kavak-Akpinar E (2006) Mathematical modelling of thin layer drying process under open sun of some aromatic plants. J Food Eng 77(4):864–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gurkan H, Hayaloglu AA (2017) Volatiles and sensory characteristics of yogurt manufactured by incorporating basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Int J Food Prop 73:1–11Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Midilli A, Kucuk H, Yapar Z (2002) A new model for single-layer drying. Dry Technol 20(7):1503–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Togrul IT, Pehlivan D (2003) Modeling of drying kineticss of single apricot. J Food Eng 58(1):23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kadam DM, Goyal RK, Singh KK, Gupta MK (2011b) Thin layer convective drying of mint leaves. J Med Plant Res 5(2):164–170Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    AOAC, Official Methods of Analysis (2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 17th edn. Microwave drying, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ergun K, Caliskan G, Dirim SN (2016) Determination of the drying and rehydration kinetics of freeze dried kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) slices. Heat Mass Transf 52(12):2697–2705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Erbay Z, Icier F (2009) A review of thin layer drying of foods: theory, modeling, and experimental results. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50:441–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Crank J (1975) The mathematics of diffusion, 2nd edn. Clarendon Press, OxfordzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Caliskan G, Dirim SN (2017) Drying characteristics of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) slices in convective and freeze dryer. Heat Mass Transf 53:2129–2141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Madamba PS, Driscoll RH, Buckle KA (1996) The thin layer drying characteristic of garlic slices. J Food Eng 29:75–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Polatci H (2008) The effects of various drying methods on the drying time and quality of basil (Ocimum basilicum), M.S. Thesis, Gaziosmanpaşa University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences (In Turkish)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tunde-Akintunde TY, Afolabi TJ, Akintunde BO (2005) Influence of drying methods on drying of bell-pepper (Capsicum annuum). J Food Eng 68:439–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Baker CGJ (1997) In: Baker CGJ (ed) Industrial drying of food. Blackie Academic and Professional, Chapman and Hall, London, pp 7–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Torki-Harchegani M, Ghanbarian D, Pirbalouti AG, Sadeghi M (2016) Dehydration behaviour, mathematical modelling, energy efficiency and essential oil yield of peppermint leaves undergoing microwave and hot air treatments. Renew Sust Energ Rev 58:407–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Doymaz İ (2006) Thin-layer drying behaviour of mint leaves. J Food Eng 74:370–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Simal S, Femenia A, Llull P, Roselló C (2000) Dehydration of aloe vera: simulation of drying curves and evaluation of functional properties. J Food Eng 43:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Demiray E, Seker A, Tülek Y (2016) Drying kinetics of onion (Allium cepa L.) slices with convective and microwave drying. Heat Mass Transf 53:1817–1827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Doymaz I (2004) Effect of pre-treatments using potassium metabisulphite and alkaline ethyl oleate on the drying kineticss of apricots. Biosyst Eng 89(3):281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Maskan M (2000) Microwave/air and microwave finish drying of banana. J Food Eng 44:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zarein M, Samadi SH, Ghobadian B (2015) Investigation of microwave dryer effect on energy efficiency during drying of apple slices. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 14(1):41–47Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sarımeşeli A (2011) Microwave drying characteristics of coriander leaves. Energy Convers Manag 52:1449–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Arslan D, Özcan MM (2008) Evaluation of drying methods with respect to drying kineticss, mineral content and colour characteristics of rosemary leaves. Energy Convers Manag 49(5):1258–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Abe T, Afzal TM (1997) Thin layer infrared radiation drying of rough rice. J Agric Eng Res 67:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Panchariya PC, Popovic D, Sharma AL (2002) Thin-layer modelling of black tea drying process. J Food Eng 52:349–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Motevali A, Minaei S, Banakar A, Ghobadian B, Darvish H (2016) Energy analysis and drying of chamomile leaves in microwave –convective dryer. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 15:179–187Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chua KJ, Chou SK, Ho JC, Hawlader MNA (2002) Heat pump drying: recent developments and future trends. Dry Technol 20:1579–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Baysal T, Ozbalta N, Gokbulut S, Capar B, Tastan O, Gurlek G (2015) Investigation of effects of various drying methods on the quality characteristics of apple slices and energy efficiency. J Therm Sci Technol 35(1):135–144Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Motevali A, Minaei S, Khoshtagaza MH (2011) Evaluation of energy consumption in different drying methods. Energy Convers Manag 52:1192–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Alibas I (2006) Characteristics of chard leaves during microwave, convective, and combined microwave-convective drying. Dry Technol 24:1425–1435CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kadriye Altay
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ali Adnan Hayaloglu
    • 2
  • Safiye Nur Dirim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Engineering FacultyEge UniversityBornovaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering, Engineering FacultyInonu UniversityMalatyaTurkey

Personalised recommendations