Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 8, pp 2103–2116 | Cite as

Assessment of the inclination surface on the microlayer behavior during nucleate boiling, a numerical study

  • Ali Asghar Abdoli Tondro
  • Reza MaddahianEmail author
  • Ali Arefmanesh


Nucleate boiling is an important part of pool boiling process. Heat transfer from the microlayer plays a considerable role in heat transfer to the fluid. The axisymmetric assumption of the microlayer for a horizontal surface needs to be evaluated for an inclined one. In this study, the effect of surface orientation on the microlayer thickness and the heat transfer rate are investigated numerically. The governing equations are simplified employing scaling analysis. The results for the microlayer thickness, the heat flux and the total heat transfer rate for the heated surface are obtained and presented. The asymmetry of the microlayer increases as the surface inclination angle varies from horizontal to vertical. Even though, the driving force due to gravity in the microlayer is negligible, however its effect on the macro region changes the microlayer parameters. The results show that the maximum microlayer heat transfer rate for the vertical surface increases by 28.8% compared to that for a horizontal surface. The proposed model, which is capable of evaluating the microlayer thickness and its surface heat transfer rate, can be employed as a surface boundary condition in the macro region simulations of the nucleate boiling.



Hamaker constant J


Evaporation coefficient


Acceleration of gravity m/s2


Latent heat kJ/ kg


Interface curvature 1/m


Thermal conductivity W/m.K


Molecular weight g/mol

\( \dot{m} \)

Liquid mass flow rate kg/s


Microlayer length mm


Distance from bubble base center mm

\( \tilde{R} \)

Universal gas constant J/mol.K


Temperature K


Temperature difference K


Liquid velocity m/s


Microlayer pressure Pa


Pressure gradient N/m3

\( \dot{Q} \)

Microlayer heat transfer rate W


Microlayer conduction heat flux W/m2

Greek letter


Inclination of heated surface


Contact angle


Microlayer thickness mm


Tangential direction


Viscosity kg /(m·s)


Density kg/m3


Surface tension N/m













Liquid-vapor interface






Radial direction








Tangential direction






Axial direction


Horizontal surface


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Judd R, Hwang K (1976) A comprehensive model for nucleate pool boiling heat transfer including microlayer evaporation. ASME Journal of Heat Transfer 98(4):623–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carey VP (1992) Liquid-vapor phase-change phenomena: An introduction to the thermophysics of vaporization and condensation in heat transfer equipment: An introduction. Taylor & Francis, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Incropera FP, Dewitt DP (1985) Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 2th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., HobokenGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marcel C, Bonetto F, Clausse A (2011) Simulation of boiling heat transfer in small heaters by a coupled cellular and geometrical automata. Heat Mass Transf 47(1):13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marcel C, Clausse A, Frankiewicz C, Betz A, Attinger D (2017) Numerical investigation into the effect of surface wettability in pool boiling heat transfer with a stochastic-automata model. Int J Heat Mass Transf 111:657–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cooper M, Lloyd A (1969) The microlayer in nucleate pool boiling. Int J Heat Mass Transf 12(8):895–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stephan P, Hammer J (1994) A new model for nucleate boiling heat transferEin neues Modell für den Wärmeübergang beim Blasensieden. Int J Heat Mass Transf 30(2):119–125Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chi-Yeh H, Griffith P (1965) The mechanism of heat transfer in nucleate pool boiling—Part I: Bubble initiaton, growth and departure. Int J Heat Mass Transf 8(6):887–904CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yabuki T, Nakabeppu O (2014) Heat transfer mechanisms in isolated bubble boiling of water observed with MEMS sensor. Int J Heat Mass Transf 76:286–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moore FD, Mesler RB (1961) The measurement of rapid surface temperature fluctuations during nucleate boiling of water. AICHE J 7(4):620–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hsu ST, Schmidt FW (1961) Measured variations in local surface temperatures in pool boiling of water. ASME Journal of Heat Transfer 83(3):254–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jawurek H (1969) Simultaneous determination of microlayer geometry and bubble growth in nucleate boiling. Int J Heat Mass Transf 12(8)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Voutsinos CM, Judd RL (1975) Laser interferometric investigation of the microlayer evaporation phenomenon. ASME Journal of Heat Transfer 97(1):88–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koffman LD, Plesset MS (1983) Experimental observations of the microlayer in vapor bubble growth on a heated solid. ASME Journal of Heat Transfer 105(3):625–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jung S, Kim H (2014) An experimental method to simultaneously measure the dynamics and heat transfer associated with a single bubble during nucleate boiling on a horizontal surface. Int J Heat Mass Transf 73:365–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stephan PC, Busse CA (1992) Analysis of the heat transfer coefficient of grooved heat pipe evaporator walls. Int J Heat Mass Transf 35(2):383–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lay JH, Dhir VK (1995) Shape of a vapor stem during nucleate boiling of saturated liquids. ASME Journal of Heat Transfer 117:394–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Son G, Dhir VK, Ramanujapu N (1999) Dynamics and heat transfer associated with a single bubble during nucleate boiling on a horizontal surface. ASME Journal of Heat Transfer 121:623–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aktinol E (2014) Numerical Simulations of Bubble Dynamics and Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling--Including the Effects of Conjugate Conduction, Level of Gravity, and Noncondensable Gas Dissolved in the Liquid. University of California, Los Angeles, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wu J, Dhir VK, Qian J (2007) Numerical simulation of subcooled nucleate boiling by coupling level-set method with moving-mesh method. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals 51(6):535–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sato Y, Niceno B (2015) A depletable micro-layer model for nucleate pool boiling. J Comput Phys 300:20–52MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kunkelmann C, Stephan P (2010) Numerical simulation of the transient heat transfer during nucleate boiling of refrigerant HFE-7100. Int J Refrig 33(7):1221–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stephan K (1992) Heat transfer in condensation and boiling. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Naterer GF, Hendradjit W, Ahn KJ, Venart JES (1998) Near-wall microlayer evaporation analysis and experimental study of nucleate pool boiling on inclined surfaces. J Heat Transf 120(3):641–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Githinji PM, Sabersky RH (1963) Some effects of the orientation of the heating surface in nucleate boiling. ASME Journal of Heat Transfer 85(4):379–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marcus B, Dropkin D (1963) The effect of surface configuration on nucleate boiling heat transfer. Int J Heat Mass Transf 6(9):863–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vishnev IP (1973) Effect of orienting the hot surface with respect to the gravitational field on the critical nucleate boiling of a liquid. J Eng Phys Thermophys 24(1):43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    El-Genk MS, Guo Z (1993) Transient boiling from inclined and downward-facing surfaces in a saturated pool. Int J Refrig 16(6):414–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Priarone A (2005) Effect of surface orientation on nucleate boiling and critical heat flux of dielectric fluids. Int J Therm Sci 44(9):822–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kaneyasu N, Yasunobu F, Satoru U (1984) Effect of surface configuration on nucleate boiling heat transfer. Int J Heat Mass Transf 27(9):1559–1571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guo Z, El-Genk MS (1992) An experimental study of saturated pool boiling from downward facing and inclined surfaces. Int J Heat Mass Transf 35(9):2109–2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wayner PC (1992) Evaporation and stress in the contact line region. Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference on Pool and External Flow Boiling: 251-256Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hickman KCD (1954) Maximum evaporation coefficient of water. Ind Eng Chem 46(7):1442–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of KashanKashanIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations