Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 8, pp 2247–2260 | Cite as

Enhanced heat transfer in plate fin heat sink with dimples and protrusions

  • Ayush Gupta
  • Manoj Kumar
  • Anil Kumar PatilEmail author


The heat transfer and flow performance of the plate fin heat sink in a horizontal rectangular channel with dimples and protrusions on the fin surfaces has been experimentally investigated in forced convection. The Nusselt number and friction factor are obtained by varying the system parameters as depth and pitch of the dimples for inline and staggered arrangements. The Reynolds number is considered in the range of 6800 to 15,200. The effect of depth and pitch of dimples are examined under constant heat flux while keeping the constant diameter of dimples. Experimental results indicate that the heat transfer and flow performance of fin array are significantly influenced by increasing the depth of dimples. The heat transfer from fin array is enhanced and the flow resistance is increased by decreasing the pitch ratio (s/d) and increasing the depth ratio (D/d). The maximum fin performance of dimpled fin heat sink corresponds to the staggered arrangement of dimpled heat sink with dimple pitch ratio (s/d) of 2.5 and dimple depth ratio (D/d) of 0.5.



Area (m2)


Specific heat of air (kJ/kgK)


Hydraulic diameter (m)


Fanning friction factor of dimpled plate fin heat sink


Fanning friction factor of smooth base without fins


Height of duct (m)


Length of duct (m)


Length of test section (m)


Distance between two pressure tapings (m)


Length of base plate (m)


Height of fin (m)


Fin spacing (m)


Diameter of dimple (m)


Depth of dimple (m)


Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)


Thermal conductivity (W/mK)


Convective heat transfer rate (W)


Total heat supply (W)

\( \dot{\mathrm{m}} \)

Mass flow rate (kg/s)


Nusselt number of dimpled plate fin heat sink


Nusselt number of plate fin heat sink


Nusselt number of smooth base without fins


Reynolds number


Pressure drop (Pa)


Air velocity (m/s)


Dimple pitch (m)


Average surface temperature of base plate (K)


Mean film temperature (K)


Width of duct (m)


Width of fin base (m)

Greek symbols


Density (kg/m3)


Dynamic viscosity (kg/m s)







Smooth plate





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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringDIT UniversityDehradunIndia

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