Wings shape effect on behavior of hybrid nanofluid inside a channel having vortex generator

  • Ghanbar Ali SheikhzadehEmail author
  • Faezeh Nejati Barzoki
  • Ali Akbar Abbasian Arani
  • Farzad Pourfattah


Thermal and flow characteristics of hybrid nanofluid inside a channel having vortex-generator with different wing shapes, is investigated numerically. Three different wing shapes, including rectangular, triangular, and trapezoidal, are considered. The geometrical configuration considered in this work is representative of a channel with three wings in each row; one mounted to the top plate and the other ones mounted to the bottom plate and this trend changes between the plates alternately. MgO-MWCNT (50:50) suspended in the ethylene glycol (EG) as base fluid with volume fractions of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% is considered as working fluid. The effects of volume fraction of the nanoparticles and type of wings in the Reynolds number range of 200–1600, are investigated. Heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop and performance evaluation criterion (PEC) are the most important parameters that investigated at different flow conditions. The results shown that rectangular wings leads to increase the heat transfer coefficient. In addition the channel with trapezoidal and triangular wings at the same volume fraction, have the higher values of PEC due to lower pressure drop. Also the result indicated that heat transfer coefficient are enhanced by increasing the nanoparticles volume fraction. According to obtained results, the trapezoidal wings with nanofluid volume of fraction of 0.6 and minimum Reynolds number leads to desirable performance from heat transfer and fluid flow viewpoint.



minimum free flow area (m2)


total surface area in contact with working fluid (m2)


specific heat (J kg-1 K-1)


hydraulic diameter (m)


fin height (m)


fin pitch (m)


effective heat transfer coefficient (W m-2 K-1)


turbulent kinetic energy


channel length (m)

\( \dot{m} \)

mass flow rate (kg s-1)


number of tabs

\( \dot{Q} \)

convective heat transfer rate (W)


rectangular wing height (m)


rectangular wing width (m)


temperature (K)


triangular wing height (m)


triangular wing width (m)


fin thickness (m)


velocity (m s-1)


longitudinal vortex spacing (m)


transverse vortex spacing (m)


trapezoidal wing height (m)


pressure drop (Pa)


temperature difference (K)


Cartesian coordinates

Greek symbols


density (kg m-3)


dynamic viscosity (kg m-1 s-1)


thermal conductivity (W m-1 K-1)


solid volume fraction


Kronecker delta


effective Prandtl number


Schmidt number


rate of dissipation







base fluid






x direction, y direction


Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference









Dimensionless groups


friction factor


Nusselt number


performance evaluation criterion


Reynolds number



The authors wish to thank the Energy Research Institute and the Research & Technology Administration of the University of Kashan for their support regarding this research (Grant No. 785398).


  1. 1.
    Sheikhzadeh GA, Arefmanesh A, Kheirkhah MH, Abdollahi R (2011) Natural convection of cu–water nanofluid in a cavity with partially active side walls. Eur J Mech - B/Fluids 30:166–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abbasian Arani AA, Amani J, Hemmat Esfe M (2012) Numerical simulation of mixed convection flows in a square double lid-driven cavity partially heated using nanofluid. J Nanostruct 2(3):301–311Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sheikhzadeh GA, Hajilou M, Jafarian H (2014) Analysis of thermal performance of a Car radiator employing Nanofluid. Int J Mech Eng Appl 2(4):47–51Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dastmalchi M, Sheikhzadeh GA, Abbasian Arani AA (2015) Double-diffusive natural convective in a porous square enclosure filled with nanofluid. Int J Therm Sci 95:88–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abbasian Arani AA, Aberoumand H, Aberoumand S, Moghaddam AJ, Dastanian M (2016) An empirical investigation on thermal characteristics and pressure drop of ag-oil nanofluid in concentric annular tube. Heat Mass Transf 52(8):1693–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abbasian Arani AA, Ababaei A, Sheikhzadeh GA, Aghaei A (2017) Numerical simulation of double-diffusive mixed convection in an enclosure filled with nanofluid using Bejan’s heatlines and masslines. Alex Eng J.
  7. 7.
    Hemmat Esfe M, Karimpour R, Abbasian Arani AA, Shahram J (2017) Experimental investigation on non-Newtonian behavior of Al2O3-MWCNT/5W50 hybrid nano-lubricant affected by alterations of temperature, concentration and shear rate for engine applications. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 82:97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Min CH, Qi CY, Kong XF, Dong JF (2010) Experimental study of rectangular channel with modified rectangular longitudinal vortex generators. Int J Heat Mass Transf 53:3023–3029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhou GB, Ye QL (2012) Experimental investigation of thermal and flow characteristics of curved trapezoidal-winglet type vortex generators. Appl Therm Eng 37:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Colleoni A, Toutant A, Olalde G, Foucaunt JM (2013) Optimization of winglet vortex generators combined with riblets for wall/fluid heat exchanger enhancement. Appl Therm Eng 50:1092–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Al-khishali KJM, Ebaid MSY (2015) Numerical and experimental investigations of shape and location of vortex generators on fluid flow and heat transfer in a constant heat-fluxed rectangular duct. Adv Mech Eng 7:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kamboj R, Dhingra S, Singh G (2014) CFD simulation of heat transfer enhancement by plain and curved winglet type vertex generators with punched holes. In J Eng Res Gen Sci 2:648–659Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khoshvaght Aliabadi M, Zangouei S, Hormozi F (2015) Performance of a plate fin heat exchanger with vortex-generator channels: 3D-CFD simulation and experimental validation. Int J Therm Sci 88:180–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lu G, Zhou G (2016) Numerical simulation on performances of plane and curved winglet type vortex generator pairs with punched holes. Int J Heat Mass Transf 102:679–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khoshvaght Aliabadi M, Hormozi F, Zamzamian A (2014) Effects of geometrical parameters on performance of plate-fin heat exchanger: vortex-generator as core surface and nanofluid as working media. Appl Therm Eng 70:565–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ahmed HE, Ahmed MI, Yusoff MZ (2015) Heat transfer enhancement in a triangular duct using compound nanofluids and turbulators. Appl Therm Eng 91:191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ahmed HE, Ahmed MI, Yusoff MZ, MNA H, Al-Ani H (2015) Experimental study of heat transfer augmentation in non-circular duct using combined nanofluids and vortex generator. Int J Heat Mass Transf 90:1197–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ahmed HE, Yusoff MZ, Hawlader MNA, Ahmed MI, Salman BH, Kerbeet AS (2017) Turbulent heat transfer and nanofluid flow in a triangular duct with vortex generators. Int J Heat Mass Transf 105:495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ahmed HE, Mohammed HA, Yusoff MZ (2012) An overview on heat transfer augmentation using vortex generators and nanofluids: approaches and applications. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16:5951–5993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mamourian M, Milani-Shirvan K, Mirzakhanlari S, Rahimi AB (2016) Vortex generators position effect on heat transfer and nanofluid homogeneity: a numerical investigation and sensitivity analysis. Appl Therm Eng 107:1233–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Khoshvaght-Aliabadi M, Akbari M, Hormozi F (2016) An empirical study on vortex generator insert fitted in tubular heat exchangers with dilute cu-water nanofluid flow. Chin J Chem Eng 24:728–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ahmed HE, Mohammed HA, Yusoff MZ (2012) Heat transfer enhancement of laminar nanofluids flow in a triangular duct using vortex generator. Superlattice Microst 52:398–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sabaghan A, Edalatpour M, Charjouei-Moghadam M, Roohi E, Niazmand H (2016) Nanofluid flow and heat transfer in a microchannel with longitudinal vortex-generators: two-phase numerical simulation. Appl Therm Eng 100:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ebrahimi A, Rikhtegar F, Sabaghan A, Roohi E (2016) Heat transfer and entropy generation in a microchannel with longitudinal vortex generators using nanofluids. Energy 101:190–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Syam Sundar L, Singh MK, Sousa ACM (2014) Enhanced heat transfer and friction factor of MWCNT–Fe3O4/water hybrid nanofluids. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 52:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nuim Labib M, Nine MJ, Afrianto H, Chung H, Jeong H (2013) Numerical investigation on effect of base fluids and hybrid nanofluid in forced convective heat transfer. Int J Therm Sci 71:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huang D, Wu Z, Sunden B (2016) Effects of hybrid nanofluid mixture in plate heat exchangers. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 72:190–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vafaei M, Afrand M, Sina N, Kalbasi R, Sourani F, Teimouri H (2017) Evaluation of thermal conductivity of MgO-MWCNTs/EG hybrid nanofluids based on experimental data by selecting optimal artificial neural networks. Phys E: Low-dimension Syst Nanostruct 85:90–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Soltani O, Akbarin M (2016) Effects of temperature and particles concentration on the dynamic viscosity of MgO-MWCNT/ethylene glycol hybrid nanofluid: experimental study. Physica E84:564–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sarkarn J, Ghosh P, Adil A (2015) A review on hybrid nanofluids: recent research, development and applications. Renew Sust Energ Rev 43:164–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lu G, Zhou G (2016) Numerical simulation on performances of plane and curved winglet pair vortex generators in a rectangular channel and field synergy analysis. Int J Therm Sci 109:323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pourfattah F, Motamedian M, Sheikhzadeh G, Toghraie D, Akbari OA (2017) The numerical investigation of angle of attack of inclined rectangular rib on the turbulent heat transfer of water-Al2O3 nanofluid in a tube. Int J Mech Sci:1106–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Khoshvaght Aliabadi M, Hormozi F, Zamzamian A (2014) Experimental analysis of thermal–hydraulic performance of copper–water nanofluid flow in different plate-fin channels. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 52:248–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ghanbar Ali Sheikhzadeh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Faezeh Nejati Barzoki
    • 1
  • Ali Akbar Abbasian Arani
    • 1
  • Farzad Pourfattah
    • 2
  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of KashanKashanIran
  2. 2.Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering DepartmentMalek-Ashtar University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations