# Saturated flow boiling heat transfer: review and assessment of prediction methods

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## Abstract

This paper presents a review of the correlations for saturated flow boiling heat transfer coefficients. Fifty correlations are systematically reviewed, which fall into seven categories. An experimental database for saturated flow boiling heat transfer was compiled from 67 sources. It contains 10,932 data points and covers 19 fluids, including eight pure halogenated refrigerants (R134a, R22, R123, R1234yf, R1234ze(E), R152a, R245fa, and R32), five refrigerant mixtures (R404A, R407C, R410A, R417A, and R507), four inorganic compounds (CO_{2}, ammonia, water, and nitrogen), and two hydrocarbons (R290 and R600a). The parameter range of the database covers hydraulic diameters of 0.137–21 mm, mass fluxes of 20–1500 kg m^{−2} s^{−1}, heat fluxes of 1.99–201 kW m^{−2}, qualities of 0.001–0.999, and reduced pressures of 0.005–0.61. Fifty correlations of saturated flow boiling heat transfer coefficients are evaluated with the database, and the detail analysis of the evaluation results is performed. The work provides a guide to choosing a proper correlation for a given application and is helpful for understanding prediction methods of saturated flow boiling heat transfer coefficients.

## Nomenclature

*A*_{c}flow area or cross-sectional area (m

^{2})*Bd*Bond number,

*g*(*ρ*_{l}−*ρ*_{g})*D*^{2}/*σ**Bo*boiling number,

*q*/(*Gh*_{lg})*Bo*_{m}modified boiling number, (

*Gh*_{lg}/*q*)[1 +*x*(*ρ*_{l}/*ρ*_{g}− 1)]*C*Chisholm constant

*Co*confinement number, \( \sqrt{\sigma /\left[g\left({\rho}_l-{\rho}_g\right)\right]}/D \)

*Cv*convection number, [(1 −

*x*)/*x*]^{0.8}(*ρ*_{g}/*ρ*_{l})^{0.5}*c*_{p}specific heat at constant pressure (J kg

^{-1}K^{-1})*D*diameter, hydraulic diameter (m),4

*A*_{c}/*P**D*_{c}Laplace constant,\( \sqrt{\sigma /\left[g\left({\rho}_l-{\rho}_g\right)\right]} \)

*F*Reynolds number factor

*F*_{f}fluid-dependent parameter

*Fa*Fang number, (

*ρ*_{l}−*ρ*_{g})*σ*/(*G*^{2}*D*)*Fr*Froude number

*f*Moody friction factor

*G*mass flux (kg m

^{-2}s^{-1})*g*Earth gravity,

*g*= 9.8 m s^{-2}.*H*height of rectangular channel (m)

*h*heat transfer coefficient (W m

^{-2}K^{-1})*h*_{lg}latent heat of vaporization (J kg

^{-1})*K*_{p}pressure dimensionless parameter, \( p/\sqrt{\sigma g\left({\rho}_l-{\rho}_g\right)} \)

*L*channel length (m)

*M*molecular mass (kg kmol

^{-1})*Nu*Nusselt number

*P*wetted perimeter (m)

*P*_{R}reduced pressure,

*p*/*p*_{crit}*Pe*_{m}modified Peclet number,

*qD*_{c}/(*h*_{lg}*ρ*_{g}*α*_{l})*Pr*Prandtl number,

*c*_{p}*μ*/*λ**p*pressure (Pa)

*q*heat flux from channel wall to fluid (W m

^{-2})*Re*Reynolds number

*S*suppression factor

*T*temperature (K)

*t*temperature (°C)

*W*width of rectangular channel (m)

*We*Weber number

*X*Martinelli parameter

*x*vapor quality

## Greek symbols

*α*thermal diffusivity (m

^{2}s^{-1})*β*_{c}contact angle (rad)

*δ*thickness (m)

*ε*roughness (m), void fraction

*θ*angle (rad), ratio of height to width of channel cross-section

*λ*thermal conductivity (W m

^{-1}K^{-1})*μ*dynamic viscosity (kg s

^{-1}m^{-1})*ρ*density (kg m

^{-3})*σ*surface tension (N m

^{-1})*τ*pair period (s)

*ϕ*^{2}two-phase friction multiplier

## Subscripts

*cb*convective boiling

*crit*critical point

*dry*dryout

*exp*experimental

*f*fluid

*film*liquid film between bubble and wall

*g*saturated vapor

*go*gas only, all flow taken as vapor

*IA*intermittent to annular flow transition

*l*saturated liquid

*lam*laminar flow

*lo*liquid only, all flow taken as liquid

*nb*nucleate boiling

*pred*predicted

*sat*saturated

*sp*single-phase

*tp*two-phase

*tt*turbulent liquid/turbulent gas

*trans*laminar-turbulent transition

*v*viscous

*w*channel inner wall surface

## Notes

### Acknowledgements

This study is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (51576099, 51176074).

### Compliance with ethical standards

### Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

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