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Multi-objective optimization of the basic and single-stage Organic Rankine Cycles utilizing a low-grade heat source

  • Mert Sinan Turgut
  • Oguz Emrah Turgut
Original
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Abstract

This study deals with the multi-objective optimization of basic and single-stage Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) utilizing a low-grade heat source. Twelve different isentropic and dry pure refrigerants are considered as the primary working fluid for two different ORC configurations. Specific Investment Cost (SIC) and second law efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle are considered for optimization objectives to be optimized seperately and concurrently. Sixteen and twenty two different decision variables are respectively taken into account for modeling of the basic and the single-stage ORC optimization problems. The optimization problem is solved by applying a swarm based metaheuristic optimizer called Artificial Cooperative Search (ACS) algorithm. A pareto curve comprised of non dominated optimal solutions is constructed for each refrigerant-cycle pair and the best answer among the set of non dominated solutions are chosen by means of TOPSIS decision making method. Thermodynamic performance of each refrigerant are evaluated with respect to numerical outcomes of the objective functions. Comparative analysis based on the efficiencies of problem objectives reveals that R236ea, R245fa and R600 are selected as the best performers of the basic ORC and R245ca, R245fa and R600 are selected as the best performers of the single-stage ORC. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is executed to observe the effect of the decision variables on the objectives. It is understood that the evaporator shell diameter, number of tube passes in the evaporator, evaporator pressure and mass flow rate of the refrigerant are the decision variables with the most influence on the design objectives.

Keywords

Artificial cooperative search Multi-objective optimization Organic Rankine Cycles Refrigerants Thermal design 

List of symbols

A

Heat exchanger surface (m2)

ACS

Artificial cooperative search

B,C,K

Constants of the economical model

Bo

Boiling number

C

Cost ($)

Cp

Spesific heat at constant pressure (J/kgK)

d

Diameter (m)

f

Friction factor

F

Factor of the economical model

f()

Objective function

g

Gravitational acceleration (m/s2)

GWP

Global warming potential

g()

Inequality constraint

h

Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)

h

Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

h()

Equality constraint

I

Irreversibility (kJ)

k

Thermal conductivity (W/mK)

LMTD

Log mean temperature difference (K)

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

M

Molecular mass (kg/kmol)

N,n

Number of component

Nu

Nusselt number

ODP

Ozone depletion potential

ORC

Organic rankine cycle

P

Pressure (Pa)

Pt

Distance between two tubes in the heat exchanger (m)

Pr

Prandtl number

Q

Heat transfer rate (kW)

R

Fouling resistance (m2K/W)

Re

Reynolds number

s

Entropy (kJ/kgK)

SIC

Specific investment cost ($/kW)

SSORC

Single-stage organic rankine cycle

T

Temperature (K).

TC

Total cost ($)

U

Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)

v

Velocity (m/s)

W

Work (kJ)

x

Vapor quality

Xtt

Lockhart-Martinelli parameter

\( \overrightarrow{x} \)

Design variable

Greek letters

η

Efficiency

μ

Viscosity (kg/ms)

ρ

Density (kg/m3)

Subscripts

0

Ambient

CO,c

Condenser

EV,e

Evaporator

FH

Feed heater

fg

Liquid-vapor phase

g,v

Vapor phase

H

Hot medium

HX

Heat exchanger

in

Inside

l,f

Liquid phase

L

Cold medium

m

Mean

M

Material

Out,o

Outside

PP,p

Pump

r

Refrigerant

tot

Total

TR,t

Turbine

w

Wall

Notes

Compliance with ethical Standarts

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentEge UniversityBornova/IzmirTurkey

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