Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 385–396 | Cite as

Heat transfer characteristics of deionized water-based graphene nanofluids in helical coiled heat exchanger for waste heat recovery of combustion stack gas

  • Rithy Kong
  • Attakorn Asanakham
  • Thoranis DeethayatEmail author
  • Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat


Heat transfer phenomena of a fully developed laminar flow of deionized water-based graphene nanofluids (DI-water/GNPs) in vertical helical coils for heat recovery of combustion stack gas was carried out with different helical coil dimensions. The GNPs particle concentrations were 0.05 and 0.08% by weight and the calculation of experimental heat transfer data was based on countercurrent flow LMTD method under condition of constant wall heat flux. With higher thermal conductivity and lower specific heat capacity, the graphene nanofluids provided better heat transfer performance compared to pure DI-water. The increase of the thermal conductivity was found to be 13.36% at particle fraction of 0.05% by weight which resulted in the increase of heat transfer coefficient by 21–25% compared to that of the DI-water. The better heat transfer characteristics could be obtained at more particle concentration. The effect of coil dimensions on heat transfer phenomena of helical coils had been discussed and a new correlation of heat transfer data for the nanofluids was created. The overall heat transfer coefficient between the hot exhaust gas and the heat transfer fluid in the helical coil was also considered.



log-mean temperature difference (°C).


heat transfer fluid.


coiled tube diameter (m).


coil pitch (m).


coil diameter (m).


coil turns.


coil length (m).


coil height (m).


Reynolds number \( \left(\operatorname{Re}=\frac{\uprho \mathrm{vd}\ }{\upmu}\right). \)


Prandtl number \( \left(\Pr =\frac{{\mathrm{c}}_{\mathrm{p}}\upmu}{\mathrm{k}}\ \right) \)


Dean number, Dn = Re(d/D)1/2


Nusselt number


temperature (°C)


specific heat

\( \dot{\mathrm{m}} \)

mass flow rate

\( \dot{\mathrm{Q}} \)

heat transfer rate


heat flux


convective heat transfer coefficient


overall heat transfer coefficient


thermal conductivity



inside or inlet


outside or outlet






base fluid (DI-water)




tube wall surface



The authors are thankful to Center of Excellent for Energy, Economic and Ecological Management, Chiang Mai University, and Sino-Thai Cooperation Research Project under National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) for supporting testing facilities and financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rithy Kong
    • 1
  • Attakorn Asanakham
    • 2
  • Thoranis Deethayat
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat
    • 2
  1. 1.Energy Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering and Graduate SchoolChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  2. 2.Thermal System Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand

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