Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 375–384 | Cite as

Experimental investigation on thermal performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipes with soluble and insoluble binary working fluids and a proposed correlation

  • R. Zamani
  • K. Kalan
  • M. B. ShafiiEmail author


In this study, an experimental investigation was conducted from a thermal performance standpoint on closed-loop pulsating heat pipes (CLPHPs) with four different fluids and their water-based binary mixtures as working fluids with volume mixing ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. Ethanol and acetone as two types of fluids that are soluble in water and, to unprecedentedly compare the behavior of insoluble mixtures with the soluble ones as the working fluids, toluene and hexane as two types that are insoluble in water were used. Additionally, to predict the thermal performance of the pure, soluble binary, and insoluble binary fluids simultaneously for the first time, a correlation was derived.



Diameter (mm).


Thermal resistance (°C/W).


Specific heat (Kj/Kg°C).

\( \overline{T} \)

Average temperature (°C).

\( \dot{Q} \)

Heat input (W).


Latent heat of vaporization (Kj/Kg).


Boiling temperature (°C).


Thermal conductivity (W/°C).


Voltage (V).


Current (A).




Bond number.


Morton number.


Prandtl number.


Jacob number.


gravitational acceleration (m / s2).

Greek symbols


surface tension (N/m).


dynamic viscosity (N.s/m2).


density (Kg/m3).



adiabatic section.


condenser section.













We would like to express our gratitude to the Deputy for Research and Technology of Sharif University of Technology for supporting this research study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Akachi H (1990) Structure of a heat pipe, U. S. Patent 4921041Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mameli M, Manno V, Filippeschi S, Marengo M (2014) Thermal instability of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe: combined effect of orientation and filling ratio. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 59:222–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sarangi RK, Rane MV (2013) Experimental investigations for startup and maximum heat load of closed loop pulsating heat pipe. Procedia Engineering 51:683–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jahan SA, Ali M, Quamrul Islam M (2013) Effect of inclination angles on heat transfer characteristics of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP). Procedia Engineering 56:82–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barua H, Ali M, Nuruzzaman M, Quamrul Islam M, Feroz CM (2013) Effect of filling ratio on heat transfer characteristics and performance of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe. Procedia Engineering 56:88–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang S, Khandekar S, Groll M (2008) Operational limit of closed loop pulsating heat pipes. Appl Therm Eng 28:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shafii MB, Faghri YZ (2001) Thermal modeling of unlooped and looped pulsating heat pipes, ASME. J Heat Transf 123:1159–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gandomkar A, Saidi MH, Shafii MB, Vandadi M, Kalan K (2017) Visualization and comparative investigations of pulsating ferro-fluid heat pipe. Appl Therm Eng 116:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pachghare PR, Mahalle AM (2013) Effect of pure and binary fluids on closed loop pulsating heat pipe thermal performance. Procedia Engineering 51:624–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pachghare PR, Mahalle AM (2014) Thermo-hydrodynamics of closed loop pulsating heat pipe: an experimental study. J Mech Sci Technol 28:3387–3394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khandekar S, Mameli M, Marengo M (2011) An exploratory study of a pulsating heat pipe operated with a two component fluid mixture, Proceedings of the 21st National and 10th ISHMT-ASME Heat and Mass Transfer conference, IIT Madras, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhu Y, Cui X, Han H, Sun S (2014) The study on the difference of the start-up and heat-transfer performance of the pulsating heat pipe with water-acetone mixtures. Int J Heat Mass Transf 77:834–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cui X, Qiu Z, Weng J, Li Z (2016) Heat transfer performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipes with methanol-based binary mixtures. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 76:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Patel VM, Gaurav, Mehta HB (2017) Influence of working fluids on startup mechanism and thermal performance of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe. Appl Therm Eng 110:1568–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shi S, Cui X, Han H, Weng J, Li Z (2016) A study of the heat transfer performance of a pulsating heat pipe with ethanol-based mixtures. Appl Therm Eng 102:1219–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reay DA, Kew PA (2006) Heat Pipes Theory, Design and ApplicationsGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Faghri A (1995) Heat Pipe Science and Technology, Taylor and FrancisGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shafii MB, Arabnejad S, Saboohi Y, Jamshidi H (2010) Experimental investigation of pulsating heat pipes and a proposed correlation. Heat Transfer Engineering 31:854–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Qu J, Wang Q (2013) Experimental study on the thermal performance of vertical closed-loop oscillating heat pipes and correlation modeling. Appl Energy 112:1154–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bejan A, Kraus AD (2003) Heat transfer handbook, Volume 1, John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dikio ED, Nelana SM, Isabirye DA, Ebenso EE (2012) Density, dynamic viscosity and derived properties of binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol with pyridine at T = (293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K. Int J Electrochem Sci 7:11101–11122Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Santrach D, Llelmers J (1978) The latent heat of vaporization prediction for binary mixtures. Ind Eng Chem Fundam 17:93–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Joel Escobedo G, Mansoori A (1998) Surface tension prediction for liquid mixtures. AICHE J 44:2324–2332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lei Q, Hou YC, Lin R (1997) A new correlation for thermal conductivity of liquids. Chemical Emlineerinq Science 52:1243–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Teja AS (1983) Simple method for the calculation of heat capacities of liquid mixtures. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 28:83–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Qunfang L, Chun HY (1999) Correlation of viscosity of binary liquid mixtures. Fluid Phase Equilib 154:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sharif Energy Research InstituteTehranIran
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations