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Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 433–444 | Cite as

On the convection heat transfer and pressure drop of copper oxide-heat transfer oil Nanofluid in inclined microfin pipe

  • Farhad HekmatipourEmail author
  • Milad Jalali
  • Farzad Hekmatipour
  • Mohammad A. Akhavan-Behabadi
  • B. Sajadi
Original
  • 57 Downloads

Abstract

In this pioneering work, mixed convection heat transfer and pressure drop of the CuO -HTO nanofluid flow in the inclined Microfin pipe is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar and temperature of the pipe wall is stable. The influence of nanoparticle and Richardson number on the mixed convection is studied as Richardson number is from 0.1 to 0.7. The results demonstrate that mixed convection heat transfer rate rise substantially with the promotion of nanoparticle mass concentration. Based on the empirical results, the four equations are recommended to be utilised for appraisal of nanofluid flow Nusselt number and Darcy friction factor in term of Richardson number and nanoparticle mass concentration with the peaked deflection of 16%. Moreover, the four equations put forward to appraise the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined pipe from 2,000,000 to 7,000,000. A new correlation is acquired to anticipate the flow Darcy friction factor in the inclined Microfin pipe. Accordingly, the maximum figure of merit is 1.61% which is achieved with 1.5% nanoparticles mass concentration and an inclined angle of 30° at the Richardson number of 0.7. These results show that using nanoparticles is more in favour of heat transfer enhancement rather than in the increase of the pressure drop.

Nomenclature

Cp

Specific heat capacity (kJ/kg. K.)

Dh

Hydraulics Diameter (m)

f

Darcy friction factor \( \left({\pi}^2\rho {D}^5\Delta P\right)/2L{\dot{m}}^2 \)

Gr

Grashof number (β∆tL3ρ2g/μ2)

Gz

Graetz number (Re Pr D/L)

h

Convection coefficient (W/m2. K)

k

Thermal conductivity (W/m. K)

\( \dot{\mathrm{m}} \)

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

N

Number of fin

Nu

Nusselt number (\( \overline{h}/k\Big) \)

Pr

Prandtl number (μCp/k)

\( \dot{Q} \)

Flowrate (m3/s)

Re

Reynolds number (ρuD/μ)

Ra

Rayleigh number (GrPr)

Ri

Richardson number (Gr/Re2)

T

Temperature (K)

ΔP

Pressure drop (Pa)

U

Uncertainty (%)

z

The height of fin (m)

Greek symbols

ϑ

Dynamic viscosity (m2/s)

η

Figure of merit

ρ

Density (kg/m3)

∆ρ

Density difference (kg/m3)

π

Number of Pi

γ

Helix angle (°)

θ

Inclination of tubes (°)

τ

Vertex angle (°)

φ

Nanoparticles mass concentration (%)

Ω

Pumping Power (W)

Subscripts

b

Characteristics of fluid at average bulk temperature

bf

Base fluid

b, o

Bulk outlet

b, i

Bulk inlet

exp

Experimental values

nf

Nanofluid

w

Appraised at the wall conditions

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Energy and Environment, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of PhysicsSemnan UniversitySemnanIran
  3. 3.School of Mechanical Engineering, College of EngineeringIslamic Azad University Kashan BranchKashanIran
  4. 4.Center of Excellence in Design and Optimization of Energy Systems, School of Mechanical Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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