Advertisement

An experimental investigation to the thermal conductivity enhancement of paraffin wax as a phase change material using diamond nanoparticles as a promoting factor

  • S. M. SadrameliEmail author
  • F. Motaharinejad
  • M. Mohammadpour
  • F. Dorkoosh
Original
  • 53 Downloads

Abstract

According to the increasing energy needs in the last decades, application of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) as a new phenomenon for temperature control, energy storage and management in this arena has been investigated in recent years. One of the common and wide spread applied phase change materials with a flexible melting point, nontoxic and noncorrosive and large latent heat is paraffin wax. However, the application of this type of PCM is limited due to its low thermal conductivity. To improve the thermal conductivity of paraffin based PCM, diamond-nanoparticles is used as an additive in microencapsulation of the paraffin wax coated with gelatin-Gum Arabic. For the preparation of the microcapsules complex coacervation method was employed. The measurement of the efficiency of microencapsulation was done by conducting heating test and washing the microcapsules with toluene. Appearance and size of manufacturing microscopes are investigated by using an optical microscope. Thermal properties of the samples were calculated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) test. Finally, the influence of microencapsulation parameters such as emulsification time, core to shell ratio and additive percentage on the microencapsulation efficiency and thermal conductivity, stability, and the latent heat of the resulting composite materials were discussed and compared with the properties of the pure microcapsules without nano-particles.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support from the research department of Tarbiat Modares University (Research group of PCM grant No. IG-39710) is acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Wang N et al (2012) The investigation of thermal conductivity and energy storage properties of graphite/paraffin composites. J Therm Anal Calorim 107(3):949–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cabeza LF et al (2011) Materials used as PCM in thermal energy storage in buildings: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15(3):1675–1695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu Z, Chung DDL (2001) Calorimetric evaluation of phase change materials for use as thermal interface materials. Thermochim Acta 366(2):135–147MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maruoka N et al (2002) Development of PCM for recovering high temperature waste heat and utilization for producing hydrogen by reforming reaction of methane. ISIJ Int 42(2):215–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Memon SA et al (2015) Development of structural–functional integrated concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM for thermal energy storage. Appl Energy 150(Supplement C):245–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ling Z et al (2014) Review on thermal management systems using phase change materials for electronic components, Li-ion batteries and photovoltaic modules. Renew Sust Energ Rev 31:427–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen Y-J et al (2013) Thermal characterizations of the graphite nanosheets reinforced paraffin phase-change composites. Compos A: Appl Sci Manuf 44:40–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Teng T-P, Yu C-C (2012) Characteristics of phase-change materials containing oxide nano-additives for thermal storage. Nanoscale Res Lett 7(1):611MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Warzoha RJ, Weigand RM, Fleischer AS (2015) Temperature-dependent thermal properties of a paraffin phase change material embedded with herringbone style graphite nanofibers. Appl Energy 137:716–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang Y et al (2014) The experimental exploration of nano-Si 3 N 4/paraffin on thermal behavior of phase change materials. Thermochim Acta 597:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hong S-T, Herling DR (2006) Open-cell aluminum foams filled with phase change materials as compact heat sinks. Scr Mater 55(10):887–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li W et al (2014) Experimental study of a passive thermal management system for high-powered lithium ion batteries using porous metal foam saturated with phase change materials. J Power Sources 255:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alrashdan A, Mayyas AT, Al-Hallaj S (2010) Thermo-mechanical behaviors of the expanded graphite-phase change material matrix used for thermal management of Li-ion battery packs. J Mater Process Technol 210(1):174–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tavman I et al (2011) Measurement of heat capacity and thermal conductivity of HDPE/expanded graphite nanocomposites by differential scanning calorimetry. Arch Mater Sci Eng 50(1):56–60Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Şahan N, Fois M, Paksoy H (2015) Improving thermal conductivity phase change materials—a study of paraffin nanomagnetite composites. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 137:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nomura T et al (2015) High thermal conductivity phase change composite with percolating carbon fiber network. Appl Energy 154:678–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li M (2013) A nano-graphite/paraphin phase change material with high thermal conductivity. Appl Energy 106:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guan W-m et al (2015) Preparation of paraffin/expanded vermiculite with enhanced thermal conductivity by implanting network carbon in vermiculite layers. Chem Eng J 277(Supplement C):56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li Y, Li J, Deng Y, Guan W, Wang X, Qian T (2016) Preparation of paraffin/porous TiO2 foams with enhanced thermal conductivity as PCM by covereing the TiO2 surface with a carbon layer. Appl Energy 171:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jamekhorshid A, Sadrameli S, Farid M (2014) A review of microencapsulation methods of phase change materials (PCMs) as a thermal energy storage (TES) medium. Renew Sust Energ Rev 31:531–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hu M, Yu D, Wei J (2007) Thermal conductivity determination of small polymer samples by differential scanning calorimetry. Polym Test 26(3):333–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Malekipirbazari M et al (2014) Synthetic and physical characterization of phase change materials microencapsulated by complex coacervation for thermal energy storage applications. Int J Energy Res 38(11):1492–1500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Calvet N et al Latent heat storage enhancement by thermal conductivity intensification. In: Proceedings of EFFSTOCK, the 11th International Conference on Thermal Energy StorageGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pincemin S et al (2008) Highly conductive composites made of phase change materials and graphite for thermal storage. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 92(6):603–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hawlader M, Uddin M, Khin MM (2003) Microencapsulated PCM thermal-energy storage system. Appl Energy 74(1):195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Young S, Sarda X, Rosenberg M (1993) Microencapsulating properties of whey proteins. 1. Microencapsulation of anhydrous milk fat. J Dairy Sci 76(10):2868–2877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang Y et al (2006) Influence of additives on thermal conductivity of shape-stabilized phase change material. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 90(11):1692–1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Process Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical EngineeringTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutics. Faculty of PharmacyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations