Marine Biology

, 166:104 | Cite as

De novo transcriptome of the newly described phototrophic dinoflagellate Yihiella yeosuensis: comparison between vegetative cells and cysts

  • Se Hyeon Jang
  • Hae Jin JeongEmail author
  • Jae Kyung Chon
Original Paper


Dinoflagellates are often responsible for red tides or harmful algal blooms. Many dinoflagellates move quickly to capture prey cells, escape from predation, and conduct diurnal vertical migrations, but they form cysts (non-motile stage) when growth conditions are not favorable. To investigate differences in gene expression between vegetative cells and cysts of dinoflagellates, transcriptomes of the newly described dinoflagellate Yihiella yeosuensis, one of the fastest dinoflagellates, at the cysts and vegetative cells were de novo assembled. The gene expression profiles of Y. yeosuensis showed 5479 up-regulated and 4790 down-regulated significantly differentially expressed genes, when cells changed from the vegetative cells to cysts. In particular, ‘polyketide synthase’ and ‘cell-wall biogenesis’ genes, related to anti-predation, were highly up-regulated, whereas flagellum-related genes, related to motility, were generally down-regulated. Among the flagellum-related genes of Y. yeosuensis, the ‘central pair’ and ‘radial spoke’ genes, related to direct flagellar movement, were most down-regulated genes. When approximately a hundred flagellum-related genes of motile and non-motile microalgae and plants were analyzed, the number of the genes increased with increasing motility, and furthermore, there was a considerable difference in the presence of the ‘central pair’ and ‘radial spoke’ genes among the motile microalgae. Therefore, high down-regulation of the ‘central pair’ and ‘radial spoke’ genes when Y. yeosuensis cells change from the motile to non-motile stage is possibly related to the presence of these genes in microalgae and plants in their evolution. Conclusively, when Y. yeosuensis form cysts, motility might trade off with anti-predation.



This research was supported by the useful dinoflagellate program of Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion (KIMST) funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2015M1A5A1041806 and NRF-2017R1E1A1A01074419) award to HJJ.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 2832 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Se Hyeon Jang
    • 1
  • Hae Jin Jeong
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jae Kyung Chon
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Advanced Institutes of Convergence TechnologySuwonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Macrogen Inc.SeoulRepublic of Korea

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