Effects of light intensity and temperature on growth and ingestion rates of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pohangense
The newly described phototrophic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pohangense, APPH1409, fed only on the dinoflagellate Margalefidinium polykrikoides among 16 potential algal prey species tested. To explore the ecophysiology of A. pohangense, its growth and ingestion rates with and without added M. polykrikoides prey were determined as a function of light intensity (0–346 µmol photons m−2 s−1) and temperature (10–35 °C). Both the autotrophic and mixotrophic growth rates of A. pohangense fed on M. polykrikoides were significantly affected by light intensity. In the darkness, A. pohangense did not grow under either mixotrophic or phototrophic conditions. The compensation light intensity for the growth of A. pohangense under mixotrophic conditions (2.7 µmol photons m−2 s−1) was lower than that under autotrophic conditions (11.7 µmol photons m−2 s−1). Growth inhibition due to light stress did not occur at the tested light intensities. A. pohangense grew between 15 and 30 °C, but did not grow at 10 °C or ≥ 32 °C. Both the autotrophic and mixotrophic growth rates of A. pohangense fed on M. polykrikoides were also significantly affected by temperature. At the same light intensity or temperature, the mixotrophic growth rate of A. pohangense was generally considerably greater than the autotrophic growth rate, with a few exceptions. Therefore, light intensity, water temperature, and prey accessibility may affect the population dynamics of this species.
This research was supported by the useful dinoflagellate program of Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion (KIMST) funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF) and development of the methods for controlling and managing marine ecological disturbance causing and harmful organisms (MEDHO) of KIMST. It was also supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2015M1A5A1041806 and NRF-2017R1E1A1A01074419) award to HJJ.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of organisms were followed
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