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Marine Biology

, 166:91 | Cite as

Unexplored diversity of the mesophotic echinoderm fauna of the Easter Island ecoregion

  • Ariadna MechoEmail author
  • Erin E. Easton
  • Javier Sellanes
  • Matthias Gorny
  • Christopher Mah
Original paper

Abstract

The Easter Island ecoregion (EIE) is one of the most remote marine areas of the world and encompasses a vast and fragile ecosystem including oceanic islands and seamounts. In January 2014 and March 2016, a remotely operated vehicle was used to explore a subsurface peak off Easter Island (27.23°S, 109.48°W) and a seamount (26.92°S, 110.26°W), respectively located 10 km southwest and 98 km west of the island. More than 950 echinoderms were observed in the 5 h of video recorded during the seven dives conducted at depths between ~ 160 and 280 m. The communities of echinoderms observed at these depths markedly differed from those reported for shallower waters near Easter Island. Of the 20 morphospecies reported in the present study, only 5 were previously reported in the EIE. One species, six genera, and three families were reported for the first time in this area, and two new genera were discovered and described. A preliminary biogeographic analysis suggests affinities between the observed echinoderms and those of the West Pacific. These findings highlight the uniqueness of these assemblages and, therefore, the importance of considering them in the establishment of effective management strategies for these communities, which are within the Rapa Nui marine-protected area created in 2017.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Chilean Navy, pilot and crew of the LSG Tokerau. Thanks also to Matias Atamu, Enrique “Taka” Hey, Iván Hinojosa, Arturo Tuki, Carlos Varela, and Germán Zapata-Hernández for providing assistance in the field. Special thanks to Sergio Rapu and the Rapa Nui Heritage Foundation for providing land and facilities for our on-island laboratory. We would like to thank Dr. H.A. Lessios and Dr. M. Mihaljevic, and especially to Dr. F.W.E. Rowe for their help with the classification. Data collection was funded by the Chilean Millennium Initiative ESMOI, the National Geographic Society, OCEANA (providing also the ROV), and a postdoctoral contract to A.M. provided by the Universidad Católica del Norte. Additional funding was provided by FONDECYT 1181153 grant and by the support of the Pure Ocean Fund, managed by the King Baudouin Foundation.

Funding

Funding was provided by the Chilean Millennium Initiative ESMOI, the National Geographic Society, OCEANA (providing also the ROV), and a postdoctoral contract to A.M. provided by the Universidad Católica del Norte. Additional funding was provided by FONDECYT 1181153 Grant and by the support of the Pure Ocean Fund, managed by the King Baudouin Foundation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

We declare that all applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for sampling videos and organisms for the study have been followed and all necessary approvals have been obtained from the Servicio Hidrográfico y Oceanográfico de la Armada de Chile (SHOA) and Comité Oceanográfico Nacional (CONA).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Supplementary material

227_2019_3537_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 12 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Núcleo Milenio de Ecología y Manejo Sustentable de Islas Oceánicas (ESMOI), Departamento de Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del MarUniversidad Católica del NorteCoquimboChile
  2. 2.School of Environmental, Earth, and Marine SciencesUniversity of Texas Rio Grande ValleyBrownsvilleUSA
  3. 3.Oceana Inc. ChileSantiagoChile
  4. 4.Smithsonian InstitutionWashingtonUSA

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