Dose-dependence and small-scale variability in responses to ocean acidification during squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, development
Coastal squids lay their eggs on the benthos, leaving them to develop in a dynamic system that is undergoing rapid acidification due to human influence. Prior studies have broadly investigated the impacts of ocean acidification on embryonic squid, but have not addressed the thresholds at which these responses occur or their potential variability. We raised squid, Doryteuthis pealeii (captured in Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts, USA: 41°23.370'N 70°46.418′W), eggs in three trials across the breeding season (May–September, 2013) in a total of six chronic pCO2 exposures (400, 550, 850, 1300, 1900, and 2200 ppm). Hatchlings were counted and subsampled for mantle length, yolk volume, hatching time, hatching success, and statolith morphology. New methods for analysis of statolith shape, rugosity, and surface degradation were developed and are presented (with code). Responses to acidification (e.g., reduced mantle lengths, delayed hatching, and smaller, more degraded statoliths) were evident at ~ 1300 ppm CO2. However, patterns of physiological response and energy management, based on comparisons of yolk consumption and growth, varied among trials. Interactions between pCO2 and hatching day indicated a potential influence of exposure time on responses, while interactions with culture vessel highlighted the substantive natural variability within a clutch of eggs. While this study is consistent with, and expands upon, previous findings of sensitivity of the early life stages to acidification, it also highlights the plasticity and potential for resilience in this population of squid.
Dorsal mantle length
Environmental Systems Laboratory
Marine Biological Laboratory
Scanning electron microscopy
We would like to thank D. Remsen, the MBL Marine Resources Center staff, and MBL Gemma crew for their help acquiring squid. R. Galat and WHOI facilities staff provided system support. D. McCorkle, KYK Chan, and M. White provided guidance and insight into the acidification system and water quality monitoring. A. Solow provided statistics advice. We thank L. Kerr and the MBL Central Microscopy Facility for their aid with the SEM. We greatly appreciate E. Bonk, S. Zacarias, M. Lee, and A. Schlunk for their outstanding advice and assistance with this experiment. Thanks also to editors and anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback on this manuscript.
This material was based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374 to CZ. This project was funded by National Science Foundation Grant No. 1220034 to TAM.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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