Expression of intercellular lipid transport and cholesterol metabolism genes in eggs and early larvae stages of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, a marine aquaculture species
- 277 Downloads
Growth and energy transfer are critically dependent on effective transport of lipid molecules between tissues and cellular compartments. This process is specific in egg and eleutheroembryos, when energetic and structural lipids, located at the yolk sac, need to be mobilized in order to be incorporated in the new forming embryo, or to produce energy. Here, we describe the transcriptional profile of 11 genes that codify for proteins involved in intercellular lipid transport and cholesterol metabolism during the early development of a marine teleost fish (Scophthalmus maximus), from notochord formation to the period beyond mouth opening. The mRNA expression pattern of genes (apoA1, apoB100, apoE, cetp, mtp, pltp, lipC, lpl, hmgcr1, soat1, lcat) is described and related to previously published lipid levels in larvae and PPARs—peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors—mRNA levels from the same experiment (Cunha et al. in Mar Genomics 10:17–25, 2013). Our findings show that the transcription of genes responsible for apolipoproteins production starts soon before hatching and that activities decline along the development. In contrast, genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis have a low transcription level early in the development and their activity increases later. Apolipoproteins and other genes related to reverse cholesterol transport are possibly under the control of Pparα2, while the expression of extracellular lipid transfer proteins and enzymes involved in cholesterol synthesis is possibly under the simultaneous control of Pparα1 and Pparγ. Generally, the observed transcription of genes involved in lipid transport is in accordance with the lipid composition of the larvae and transcription of master regulators of lipid metabolism such as the nuclear receptors—PPARs.
KeywordsMouth Opening Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Cholesterol Metabolism Reverse Cholesterol Transport Lipid Transfer Protein
This work was developed under the research project PTDC/MAR/68885/2006, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), the “Programa Operacional Ciência e Inovação 2010” (POCI 2010), co-financed by the FEDER European Community fund, and the project PEst-C/MAR/LA0015/2013. We would like thank Insuiña—Pescanova S.A. for kindly supply the embryos used for the experiments described in this paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.
- Améen C, Edvardsson U, Ljungberg A, Asp L, Åkerblad P, Tuneld A, Olofsson S-O, Lindén D, Oscarsson J (2004) Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α increases the expression and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in the liver. J Biol Chem 280:1224–1229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bouza C, Vandamme S, Hermida M, Cabaleiro S, Volckaert F, Martinez P (2014) AquaTrace species leaflet Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Knowledge Review, FP7 project AquaTrace/WP2. https://aquatrace.eu/documents/80305/0115e1d7-de7e-42f2-abaa-f6cef1a4b37c
- Fang X, Wei Y, Liu Y, Wang J, Dai J (2010) The identification of apolipoprotein genes in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) and their expression following perfluorooctanoic acid exposure. Comp Biochem Physiol 151C:152–259Google Scholar
- FAO (2014) FishStat plus. Capture production 1950–2012; Aquaculture production 1950–2012Google Scholar
- Finn RN (1994) Physiological energetics of developing marine fish embryos and larvae. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Bergen, Norway, p 206Google Scholar
- ICES (2008) Report of the study group on mixed fisheries management (SGMixMan). ICES CM 2008/ACOM:23Google Scholar
- Lodish H, Berk A, Matsudaira P, Kaiser CA, Krieger M, Scott MP, Zipursky L, Darnell J (2003) Molecular cell biology, 5th edn. 18th chapter, 743–777Google Scholar
- Manavalan CAP, Kober A, Metso J, Lang I, Becker T, Hasslitzer K, Zandl M, Fanaee-Danesh E, Pippal JB, Sachdev V, Kratky D, Stefulj J, Jauhiainen M, Panzenboeck U (2014) Phospholipid transfer protein is expressed in cerebrovascular endothelial cells and involved in high density lipoprotein biogenesis and remodeling at the blood–brain barrier. J Biol Chem 289:4683–4698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Soutar AK (2002) Lipoproteins: genetic disorders. Macmillan Publishers, Ltd, Nature publishing group, www.els.net