Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 158, Issue 10, pp 2247–2266 | Cite as

Life cycle of the jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) and its distribution, seasonality and inter-annual variability along the Catalan coast and the Mar Menor (Spain, NW Mediterranean)

  • Verónica FuentesEmail author
  • Ilka Straehler-Pohl
  • Dacha Atienza
  • Ignacio Franco
  • Uxue Tilves
  • Miriam Gentile
  • Melissa Acevedo
  • Alejandro Olariaga
  • Josep-Maria Gili
Original Paper

Abstract

Rhizostoma pulmo is one of the most abundant scyphomedusae along the Mediterranean coasts. To understand changes in the population densities of the medusa stage and its relationship with the benthic stage, we describe all developmental stages from the life cycle of R. pulmo, from the scyphistoma stage to young medusae reared in the laboratory. Mature scyphistomae showed a mean total body length of 1.7 mm and the average tentacle number was 16. Asexual reproduction occurred by lateral budding, podocyst and pedalocyst production. Each strobila released up to 8 ephyrae that had a mean total body diameter of 3.5 mm. Moreover, we also present data on the temporal and spatial distribution of the species in the Catalan Sea and the coastal lagoon on Mar Menor (NW Mediterranean) during the years 2007–2009. In the Catalan Sea, the presence of adult R. pulmo was recorded as extended along the whole coast, but most of the observation was concentrated in the central area; the highest abundances were recorded during the months of July and August. The highest number of observations was detected in 2008 in coincidence with the inter-annual variation observed in the Mar Menor lagoon.

Keywords

Total Body Length Ring Canal Catalan Coast Radial Canal Soft Image System GmbH 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Catalan Water Agency for funding the Medusa Project. We are indebted to all institutions collaborating with the reporting network. Furthermore, we would like to thank PD Dr. G. Jarms (Hamburg, Germany) for kind advice and laboratory facilities. We also thank the Regional Government of the Region of Murcia (Comunidad Autónoma de la Región de Murcia—CARM) that financed the monitoring programs in the Mar Menor and to the EUROGEL European project that financed sampling there in 2003–2005. We thanks also Eduardo Ovis and Georgios Tsounis for the photographs of the jellyfish.

References

  1. Arai MN (2001) Pelagic coelenterates and eutrophication: a review. Hydrobiologia 451:69–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arai MN (2009) The potential importance of podocysts to formation of scyphozoan blooms: a review. Hydrobiologia 616:241–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bigelow RP (1900) The anatomy and development of Cassiopea xamachana. Mem Bost Soc Nat Hist 5:190–244Google Scholar
  4. Boero F, Bouillon J, Gravili C, Miglietta MP, Parsons T, Piraino S (2008) Gelatinous plankton: irregularities rule the world (sometimes). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 356:299–310. doi: 10.3354/meps07368 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brodeur RD, Sugisaki H, Hunt GL Jr (2002) Increases in jellyfish biomass in the Bering Sea: implications for the ecosystem. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 233:89–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Calder DR (1973) Laboratory observations on the life history of Rhopilema verrilli (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae). Mar Biol 21:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Calder DR (1982) Life history of the cannonball jellyfish, Stomolophus meleagris L. Agassiz, 1860 (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomida). Biol Bull 162:149–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cargo DG (1971) The sessile stages of a scyphozoan identified as Rhopilema verrilli. Tulane Stud Zool Bot 17:31–34Google Scholar
  9. Castellón A, Font J, García E (1990) The Liguro-Provençal-Catalan current (NW Mediterranean) observed by Doppler profiling in the Balearic Sea. Sci Mar 54:269–276Google Scholar
  10. Chen J, Ding G (1983) Effect of temperature on the strobilation of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculenta Kishinouye—Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae) (in Chinese). Acta Zool Sin 29:195–206Google Scholar
  11. Chuin TT (1930) Le cycle évolutif du scyphistome de Chrysaora—Étude Histophysiologique. Trav Stat Biol Roscoff 8:1–179Google Scholar
  12. CIESM (The Mediterranean Science Commission) (2001) Gelatinous zooplankton outbreaks: theory and practice. CIESM workshop series 14, 112 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Claus C (1883) Untersuchungen über die Organisation und Entwicklung der Medusen. In: Tempsky F, Freytag G (eds) K. k. Hofbuchdruckerei A. Haase, Prag, Leipzig: 1–96, Taf. I–XXGoogle Scholar
  14. Claus C (1884) Die Ephyren von Cotylorhiza und Rhizostoma. Zool Inst Wien 5:1–10Google Scholar
  15. Claus C (1892) Ueber die Entwicklung des Scyphostoma von Cotylorhiza, Aurelia und Chrysaora, sowie über die systematische Stellung der Scyphomedusen, II. Arb Zool Inst Univ Wien 10:1–70Google Scholar
  16. Dawson MN, Hamner WM (2009) A character-based analysis of the evolution of jellyfish blooms: adaptation and exaptation. Hydrobiologia 616:193–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dawson MN, Martin LE, Penland LK (2001) Jellyfish swarms, tourist, and the christ-child. Hydrobiologia 451:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ding G, Chen J (1981) The life history of Rhopilema esculenta Kishinouye. J Fish China 5:93–104Google Scholar
  19. EUROGEL (2004) European gelatinous zooplankton: Mechanisms behind jellyfish blooms and their ecological and socio-economic effects. Annual report no 2 to European community, Section 3, 38 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Franco I (1990) Biología de Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) en relación con los factores físicos y biológicos del medio (Mar Menor, Murcia): Impacto sobre los cultivos marinos y especies de interés pesquero. Technical report, University of MurciaGoogle Scholar
  21. Franco I, Gili JM (1989) Some aspects on the biology of Aurelia aurita in the coastal lagoon Mar Menor. SE Spain. In: Proceedings of 5th international conference on coelenterate biology, SouthamptonGoogle Scholar
  22. Gili JM, Pagès F (2005) Jellyfish blooms. Boll Soc Hist Nat Balears 48:9–22Google Scholar
  23. Gili JM, Atienza D, Fuentes V, Lewinsky I (2009) Medusa project. Technical report to the Catalan Water Agency no 2, 198 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Gohar HAF, Eisawy AM (1960a) The Biology of Cassiopea andromeda (with a note on the species problem). Pub Mar Biol Stat Al-Ghardaqa 11:3–39Google Scholar
  25. Gohar HAF, Eisawy AM (1960b) The development of Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusae). Publ Mar Biol Stat Al-Ghardaqa 11:148–190Google Scholar
  26. Goy J, Morand P, Etienne M (1989) Long-term fluctuations of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphomedusa) in the western Mediterranean Sea. Prediction by climatic variables. Deep-Sea Res 36:269–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Graham WM, Martin DL, Felder DL, Asper VL, Perry HM (2003) Ecological and economic implications of the tropical jellyfish invader in the Gulf of Mexico. Biol Inv 5:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hamner WM, Dawson MN (2008) A review and synthesis on the systematics and evolution of jellyfish blooms: advantageous aggregations and adaptive assemblages. Hydrobiologia 616:161–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Holst S (2008) Grundlagen der Populationsentwicklung verschiedener Scyphozoa (Cnidaria) der Deutschen Bucht. Dissertation, Universität HamburgGoogle Scholar
  30. Holst S, Jarms G (2006) Substrate choice and settlement preferences of planula larvae of five Scyphozoa (Cnidaria) from German Bight, North Sea. Mar Biol 151:863–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holst S, Sötje I, Tiemann H, Jarms G (2007) Life cycle of the rhizostome jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus (L.) (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae), with studies on cnidocysts and statoliths. Mar Biol 151:1695–1710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jarms G, Morandini AC, da Silveira FL (2002) Cultivation of polyps and medusae of Coronatae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) with a brief review of important characters. Helgoland Mar Res 56:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kato KC, Tomioka T, Sakagami K (1980) Morphogenic patterns of scyphozoan strobilation. In: Tardent P, Tardent R (eds) Development and cellular biology of coelenterates. Elsevier, North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 245–250Google Scholar
  34. Kawahara M, Uye S-I, Ohtsu K, Ilizumi H (2006) Unusual population explosion of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) in East Asian waters. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 307:161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kideys A, Romanova E (2001) Distribution of gelatinous macrozooplankton in the southern Black Sea during 1996–1999. Mar Biol 139:535–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kikinger R (1992) Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)—life history of a stationary population. Mar Ecol 13:333–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Krumbach J (1930) Scyphozoa, in Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostsee, Liefer VXIIGoogle Scholar
  38. Lakkis S (1991) Aggregations of the scyphomedusa Rhizostoma pulmo in the Lebanese coastal waters during the summer of 1986. In: Jellyfish blooms in the Mediterranean. Proceedings of the I1 workshop on jellyfish in the Mediterranean Sea. Map technical reports series no. 47. UNEP, Athens, pp 119–127Google Scholar
  39. Lilley MKS, Houghton JDR, Hays GC (2009) Distribution, extent of inter-annual variability and diet of the bloom-forming jellyfish Rhizostoma in European waters. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 89:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lotan A, Ben-Hillel R, Loya Y (1992) Life cycle of Rhopilema nomadica: a new immigrant scyphomedusan in the Mediterranean. Mar Biol 112:237–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ludwig FD (1969) Die Zooxanthellen bei Cassiopea andromeda Eschscholtz 1829 (Scyphistoma-Stadium) und ihre Bedeutung für die Strobilation. Zool Jb Anat 86:238–277Google Scholar
  42. Mariottini GL, Pane L (2010) Mediterranean jellyfish venoms: a review on scyphomedusae. Mar Drugs 8:1122–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mas J (1999) Estudio de la dinamica de poblaciones de las medusas Cotylorhiza tuberculata, Rhizostoma pulmo y Aurelia aurita en el mar Menor y de su problematica asociada. Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, internal report, 101 pGoogle Scholar
  44. Masó M, Tintoré J (1991) Variability of the shelf water off the northeast Spanish coast. J Mar Syst 1:441–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mayer AG (1910) Medusae of the world. The Scyphomedusae. Carnegie Institution of Washington 109, vol 3, pp 499–735Google Scholar
  46. Mills CE (2001) Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions? Hydrobiologia 451:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pagès F (2001) Past and present anthropogenic factors promoting the invasion, colonization and dominance by jellyfish of a Spanish coastal lagoon. CIESM Workshop Ser 14:69–71Google Scholar
  48. Paspaleff GW (1938) Über die Entwicklung von Rhizostoma pulmo Agass. Arb Biol Meeresst Varna 7:1–17Google Scholar
  49. Perez-Ruzafa A, Gilabert J, Gutierrez JM, Fernández AI, Marcos C, Sabah S (2002) Evidence of a planktonic food web response to changes in nutrient input dynamics in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, Spain. Hydrobiologia 475:359–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pitt KA (2000) Life history and settlement preferences of the edible jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae). Mar Biol 136:269–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Purcell J (2005) Climate effects on formation of jellyfish and ctenophore blooms: a review. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 85:461–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Purcell JE, Arai MN (2001) Interactions of pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores with fish: a review. Hydrobiologia 451:27–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Purcell JE, Uye S-I, Lo W-T (2007) Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and direct consequences for humans: a review. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 350:153–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Richardson AJ, Bakun A, Hays GC, Gibbons MJ (2009) The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management responses to a more gelatinous future. TREE 24:312–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Rippingale RJ, Kelly SJ (1995) Reproduction and survival of Phyllorhiza punctata (Cnidaria: Rhizostomeae) in a seasonally fluctuation salinity regime in Western Australia. Mar Freshw Res 46:1145–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Russell FS (1970) II. Pelagic Scyphozoa with a supplement to the first volume on hydromedusae. In: Russell FS (ed) The medusae of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 1–283Google Scholar
  57. Salat J (1996) Review of hydrographic environmental factors that may influence anchovy habitats in Northwestern Mediterranean. Sci Mar 60:21–32Google Scholar
  58. Schiariti A, Kawahara M, Uye S, Mianzan HW (2008) Life cycle of the jellyfish Lychnorhiza lucerna (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae). Mar Biol 156:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Spangenberg DB (1968) Recent studies of strobilation in jellyfish. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 6:231–247Google Scholar
  60. Stiasny G (1921) Studien über Rhizostomeen mit besonderer berücksichtigung der Fauna des Malaiischen Archipels nebst einer Revision des Systems. Capita Zool 1:1–179Google Scholar
  61. Stiasny G (1922a) Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen’s Pacific Expedition 1914–1916. XII. Zur Kenntnis der Entwicklung von Stomolophus meleagris L. Agassiz. Vidensk Medd fra Dansk naturh Foren 75:499–511Google Scholar
  62. Stiasny G (1922b) Ueber Einige von Dr. C. J. van der Horst bei Curaçao gesammelte Medusen. In: Bijdragen tot de kennis der Fauna van Curaçao—Resultaten eener Reis van Dr. C. J. van der Horst in 1920, pp 83–91Google Scholar
  63. Stiasny G (1923) Das Gastrovascularsystem als Grundlage für ein neues System der Rhizostomeen. Zool Anz 57:241–247Google Scholar
  64. Stiasny G (1932) IV—Ueber Lychnorhiza malayensis Stiasny. Zool Med 15:89–95Google Scholar
  65. Straehler-Pohl I (2009) Die Phylogenie der Rhopaliophora und die Paraphylie der ‘Rhizostomeae’. Dissertation, Universität HamburgGoogle Scholar
  66. Straehler-Pohl I, Jarms G (2010) Identification key for young ephyrae: a first step for early detection of jellyfish blooms. Hydrobiologia 645:3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Straehler-Pohl I, Widmer CL, Morandini AC (2011) Characterizations of juvenile stages of some semaeostome Scyphozoa (Cnidaria), with recognition of a new family (Phacellophoridae). Zootaxa ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition), ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)Google Scholar
  68. Sugiura Y (1963) On the life-history of rhizostome medusae. I. Mastigias papua L. Aggassiz. Ann Zool Jap 36:194–202Google Scholar
  69. Sugiura Y (1964) On the Life-History of rhizostome medusae. II. Indispensability of zooxanthellae for strobilation in Mastigias papua. Embryologia 8:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sugiura Y (1965) On the life-history of rhizostome medusae. III. On the effects of temperature on the strobilation of Mastigias papua. Biol Bull 128:493–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sugiura Y (1966) On the life-history of rhizostome medusae IV. Cephea cephea. Embryologia 9:105–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Thiel ME (1970) Über den zweifachen stammesgeschichtlichen (“biphyletischen”) Ursprung der Rhizostomae (Scyphomedusae) und ihre Aufteilung in die zwei neuen Ordnungen Cepheida und Rhizostomida. Abh und Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg 14:145–168Google Scholar
  73. Thiel ME (1976) Die Cassiopeida (Arcadomyariae Maas, 1903, Kampylomyariae Stiasny, 1921) als dritte Ordnung der Rhizostomae (Scyphomedusae) und als die Erhebung der letzteren zu der Überordnung Rhizostomoidea (Wurzelmundartige) Supraord. nov. Mitt Hamburg. Zool Mus Inst 73:1–16Google Scholar
  74. Thiel ME (1978) Die postephyrale Entwicklung des Gastrovascularsystems der Rhizostomida nebst Ergänzungen und Berichtigungen zu den Stiasnyschen Typen dieser Entwicklung, zugleich ein Zeugnis für das Haeckelsche biogenetische Grundgesetz. Z f zool Systematik u. Evolutionsforschung 16(4):267–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tronolone VB, Morandini AC, Migotto AE (2002) On the occurrence of scyphozoan ephyrae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae and Rhizostomeae) in the southeastern Brazilian coast. Biota Neotropica 2:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Uchida T (1926) The anatomy and development of a rhizostome medusa, Mastigias papua L. Agassiz, with observations on the phylogeny of Rhizostomae. J Faculty Sci Imperial Univ Tokyo Sect VI Zool 1:45–95Google Scholar
  77. Uchida T, Nagao Z (1963) The metamorphosis of the scyphomedusa, Aurelia limbata (Brandt). Ann Zool Jap 36:83–91Google Scholar
  78. You K, Ma C, Gao H, Li F, Zhang M, Qui Y, Wang B (2007) Research on the jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye) and associated aquaculture techniques in China: current status. Int Aquacult 15:479–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Verónica Fuentes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ilka Straehler-Pohl
    • 2
  • Dacha Atienza
    • 1
  • Ignacio Franco
    • 3
  • Uxue Tilves
    • 1
  • Miriam Gentile
    • 1
  • Melissa Acevedo
    • 1
  • Alejandro Olariaga
    • 1
  • Josep-Maria Gili
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut de Ciencies del Mar, CSICBarcelona, CataloniaSpain
  2. 2.Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches MuseumUniversität HamburgHamburgGermany
  3. 3.Centro Oceanográfico de MurciaSan Pedro del PinatarSpain

Personalised recommendations