High-frequency observations of early-stage larval abundance: do storms trigger synchronous larval release in Semibalanus balanoides?
- 168 Downloads
The acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, is thought to release larvae in response to phytoplankton blooms, but there is evidence that another, unidentified cue for release may exist. We conducted high-frequency sampling in Little Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, to determine whether early-stage larval abundance was related to several environmental variables, and to characterize vertical distributions of the larvae. Larval concentrations peaked at 2.52 and 1.02 individuals l−1 during two storms. Larvae were more abundant near the surface than near the bottom. We suggest the hypothesis that turbid conditions and upward-swimming behavior may protect newly-released larvae from predation and cannibalism. Future studies should test this hypothesis with barnacles and other invertebrates.
KeywordsHigh Turbidity Surf Zone Winter Storm Larval Abundance Larval Release
We are grateful to our field assistants, especially Luc Mehl, Michael Holcomb, Erin Banning, and Christopher Waters for their help with the high-frequency plankton sampling. We would like to thank Elizabeth Gardner for allowing us access to her dock for sampling. We also thank Drs. Victoria Starczak, Kristen Davis, and Molly Jacobs for their helpful comments during the preparation of this manuscript. Support for this work came from a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship and a student award from the Coastal Ocean Institute at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (both to JG). We thank three anonymous reviewers for comments that improved this manuscript. Our experiments and sample collections comply with the laws and regulations of the United States of America and the State of Massachusetts.
- Barnes H (1957) Processes of restoration and synchronization in marine ecology. The spring diatom increase and the “spawning” of the common barnacle Balanus balanoides (L.). Ann Biol 33:67–85Google Scholar
- Bousfield EL (1955) Ecological control of the occurrence of barnacles in the Miramichi Estuary. Bull Nat Mus Can 137:1–69Google Scholar
- Fish CJ (1925) Seasonal distribution of the plankton of the Woods Hole region. Bull US Bur Fish 41:91–179Google Scholar
- Frolander HT (1955) The biology of the zooplankton of the Narragansett Bay area. Dissertation, Brown UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Harms J (1984) Influence of water temperature on larval development of Elminius modestus and Semibalanus balanoides (Crustacea, Cirripedia). Helgol Meeresunters 38:123–134Google Scholar
- NOAA (2010a) Tidal station locations and ranges. http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/tides06/tab2ec1b.html#12. Accessed 10 March 2010
- NOAA (2010b) Climatic wind data for the United States. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/mpp/wind1996.pdf. Accessed 10 March 2010
- Pineda J, Starczak V, DiBacco C (2004) Biocomplexity: regional variability in reproductive timing, settlement and recruitment of an intertidal barnacle in the US northeast coast. Abstract. ASLO/TOS Ocean research conference. Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
- Pingree RD, Mardell GT, Reid PC, John AWG (1986) The influence of tidal mixing on the timing of the spring phytoplankton development in the Southern Bight of the North Sea, the English Channel and on the northern Armorican Shelf. In: Bowman MJ, Yentsch CM, Peterson WT (eds) Lecture notes on coastal and estuarine studies, tidal mixing and plankton dynamics, vol 17. Springer, Berlin, pp 164–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry: the principles and practices of statistics in biological research, 3rd ed. W.H. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar