Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 156, Issue 6, pp 1171–1182 | Cite as

Are monoalgal diets inferior to plurialgal diets to maximize cultivation of the calanoid copepod Temora stylifera?

  • I. Buttino
  • A. Ianora
  • S. Buono
  • V. Vitello
  • G. Sansone
  • A. Miralto
Original Paper

Abstract

Temora stylifera adult copepods were fed with four different monoalgal diets and six combinations of the same cultures for 15 days. Fecundity, hatching success, number of cannibalized embryos, fecal pellet production, adult mortality and naupliar recruitment were compared, in order to find the best diet for this species. Phytoplankton species tested were Prorocentrum minimum (PRO); Isochrysis galbana (ISO); Tetraselmis suecica (TETRA) and Rhodomonas baltica (RHO) which were supplied alone or in different combinations and at various concentrations ranging from a minimum of 1 mg C L−1 day−1 to a maximum of 66 mg C L−1 day−1. Of the ten diets tested, ISO was the worst and was unable to sustain egg production and adult survival possibly because adults were unable to ingest this alga due to its small size. TETRA was also a poor food since it negatively impacted egg production and adult survival, as well as egg hatching success, possibly due to the lack of essential compounds necessary for optimal embryogenesis. RHO and PRO were the best foods inducing highest egg production, hatching success and naupliar recruitment. Even if mean egg production rates were similar to those obtained with some mixed diets, carbon intake concentrations with mixed diets were from 3 to 33 and from 6.6 to 66 times higher than with RHO and PRO given alone, respectively. Mixed diets of ISO and PRO, especially when supplied at higher concentrations (66 mg C L−1 day−1), had a negative effect on egg hatching success and adult survival, with a corresponding reduction in naupliar recruitment. On the other hand, mixed diets of TETRA and PRO promoted high naupliar recruitment but values were similar to PRO offered alone. Our results indicate that a good monoalgal diet such as RHO and PRO can be as effective as a mixed diet to sustain the mass cultivation of T. stylifera.

Keywords

Fecal Pellet Adult Survival Hatching Success Calanoid Copepod Mixed Diet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Maria Gabriella Malzone, Cira Rico and Francesca Rinna for their help at various stages of this study, Ylenia Carotenuto, Francesco Esposito and Mario Di Pinto for their useful suggestions during the experiments. Funding for this study was provided by the Regione Campania project (DGR no. 889-30/06/2006) to IB. The experiments conducted with animals comply with the current Italian laws. The project was carried out in the framework of the MarBEF Network of Excellence ‘Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning’, which is funded by the Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems Programme of the European Communities Framework Programme (contract GOCE-CT-2003-505446). This publication is contribution MPS-09013 of MarBEF.

References

  1. Battaglia B (1970) Cultivation of marine copepods for genetic and evolutionary research. Helgoländer wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchunghen 20:385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bonnet D, Carlotti F (2001) Development and egg production in Centropages typicus (Copepoda, Calanoida) fed different food types: a laboratory study. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 224:133–148. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps224133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carotenuto Y (1999) Morphological analysis of larval stages of Temora stylifera (Copepoda, Calanoida) from the Mediterranean Sea. J Plankton Res 21:1613–1632. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/21.9.1613 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carotenuto Y, Ianora A, Buttino I, Romano G, Miralto A (2002) Is postembryonic development in the copepod Temora stylifera negatively affected by diatom diets? J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 276:49–66. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(02)00237-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carotenuto Y, Ianora A, Di Pinto M, Sarno D, Miralto A (2006) Annual cycle of early developmental stage survival and recruitment in the copepods Temora stylifera and Centropages typicus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 314:227–238. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps314227 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ceballos S, Ianora A (2003) Different diatoms induce contrasting effects on the reproductive success of the copepod Temora stylifera. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 294:189–202. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(03)00263-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chandler GT (1986) High density culture of meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods within a muddy sediment substrate. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:53–59. doi: https://doi.org/10.1139/f86-007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dahl U, Rubio Lind C, Gorokhova E, Eklund B, Breitholtz M (2009) Food quality effects on copepod growth and development: implications for bioassays in ecotoxicological testing. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:351–357. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2008.04.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Evjemo JO, Reitan KI, Ingvar O (2003) Copepods as live food organisms in the larval rearing of halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) with special reference on the nutritional value. Aquaculture 227:191–210. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00503-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fleeger JW (2005) The potential to mass-culture harpaticoid copepods for use as food for larval fish. In: Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (eds) Copepods in Aquaculture. Blackwell Publisher, Iowa, USA, pp 11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guillard RRL (1975) Culture of phytoplankton for feeding marine invertebrates. In: Smith WL, Chanley MH (eds) Culture of marine animals. Plenum Press, New York, pp 26–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ianora A (1998) Copepod life history traits in subtemperate regions. J Mar Syst 15:337–349. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(97)00085-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ianora A (2005) Birth control effects of diatoms on copepod re production: implications for aquaculture studies. In: Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (eds) Copepods in Aquaculture. Blackwell Publisher, Iowa, USA, pp 31–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ianora A, Poulet SA, Miralto A (1995) A comparative study of the inhibitory effect of diatoms on the reproductive biology of the copepod Temora stylifera. Mar Biol (Berl) 121:533–539. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00349463 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ianora A, Poulet SA, Miralto A (2003) The effects of diatoms on copepod reproduction: a review. Phycologia 42:351–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ianora A, Miralto A, Poulet SA, Carotenuto Y, Buttino I, Romano G, Casotti R, Pohnert G, Wichard T, Colucci D’Amato L, Terrazzano G, Smetacek V (2004) Aldehyde suppression of copepod recruitment in blooms of a ubiquitous planktonic diatom. Nature 429:403–407. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02526 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ismar SMH, Hansen T, Sommer U (2008) Effect of food concentration and type of diet on Acartia survival and naupliar development. Mar Biol (Berl) 154:335–343. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-008-0928-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jónasdottir SH, Kiørboe T (1996) Copepod recruitment and food composition: do diatoms affect hatching success? Mar Biol (Berl) 125:743–750. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00349257 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones RH, Flynn KJ (2005) Nutritional status and diet composition affect the value of diatoms as copepod prey. Science 307:1457–1459. doi: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1107767 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kiørboe T, Mohlenberg F, Hamburger K (1985) Bioenergetics of the planktonic copepod Acartia tonsa: relation between feeling, egg production and respiration, and composition of specific dynamic action. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 26:85–97. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps026085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klein Breteler W, Schogt N, Baas M, Schouten S, Kraay G (1999) Trophic upgrading of food quality by protozoans enhancing copepod growth: role of essential lipids. Mar Biol (Berl) 135:191–198. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s002270050616 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kleppel GS, Burkhart CA (1995) Egg production and the nutritional environment of Acartia tonsa: the role of food quality in copepod nutrition. ICES J Mar Sci 52:297–304. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/1054-3139(95)80045-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kleppel GS, Burkhart CA, Houchin L (1998) Nutrition and the regulation of egg production in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Limnol Oceanogr 43:1000–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kleppel GS, Hazzard SHE, Burkart CA (2005) Maximizing the nutritional values of copepods in aquaculture: managed versus balanced nutrition. In: Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (eds) Copepods in aquaculture. Blackwell Publisher, Iowa, USA, pp 49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Knuckey RM, Semmens GL, Mayer RJ, Rimmer MA (2005) Development of an optimal micro diet for the culture of the calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis: effect of algal species and feed concentration on copepod development. Aquaculture 249:339–351. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.02.053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Koski M, Klein Breteler W (2003) Influence of diet on copepod survival in the laboratory. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 264:73–82. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps264073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koski M, Klein Breteler W, Schogt N (1998) Effect of food quality on rate of growth and development of the pelagic copepod Pseudocalanus elongatus (Copepoda, Calanoida). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 170:169–187. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps170169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Laabir M, Poulet SA, Harris RP, Cueff A, Head RN, Ianora A (1998) Comparative study of the reproduction of Calanus helgolandicus in well-mixed and seasonally stratified coastal waters of the western English Channel. J Plankton Res 20:407–421. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/20.3.407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lacoste A, Poulet SA, Cueff A, Kattner G, Ianora A, Laabir M (2001) New evidence of the copepod maternal food effects on reproduction. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 259:85–107. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(01)00224-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee CS, O’Brien PJ, Marcus NH (eds) (2005) Copepods in Aquaculture. Blackwell Publishing Ames, Iowa USAGoogle Scholar
  31. Liang D, Uye S (1996) Population dynamics and production of the planktonic copepods in a eutrophic inlet of the Inland Sea of Japan. II. Acartia omori. Mar Biol (Berl) 125:109–117. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00350765 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lipman EE, Kao KR, Phelps RP (2001) Production of the copepod Oithona sp. under hatchery conditions. In: Book of Abstracts. Aquaculture 2001. Lake Buena Vista, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  33. Mauchline J (1998) The biology of calanoid copepods. Adv Mar Biol 33:1–710. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2881(08)60234-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mazzocchi MG, Ribera d’Alcalà M (1995) Recurrent patterns in zooplankton structure and succession in a variable coastal environment. ICES J Mar Sci 52:679–691. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/1054-3139(95)80081-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mazzocchi MG, Buffoni G, Carotenuto Y, Pasquali S, Ribera d’Alcalà M (2006) Effects of food conditions on the development of the population of Temora stylifera: a modeling approach. J Mar Syst 62:71–84. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2006.04.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McKinnon AD, Duggan S, Nichols PD, Rimmer MA, Semmens G, Robino B (2003) The potential of tropical paracalanid copepods as live feeds in aquaculture. Aquaculture 223:89–106. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00161-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Miralto A, Ianora A, Poulet SA, Romano G, Laabir M (1996) Is fecundity modified by crowding in the copepod Centropages typicus?. J Plankton Res 18:1033–1040. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/18.6.1033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Miralto A, Barone G, Romano G, Poulet SA, Ianora A, Russo GL, Buttino I, Mazzarella G, Laabir M, Cabrini M, Giacobbe MG (1999) The insidious effect of diatoms on copepod reproduction. Nature 402:173–176. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/46023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Miralto A, Guglielmo L, Zagami G, Buttino I, Granata A, Ianora A (2003) Inhibition of population growth in the copepods Acartia clausi and Calanus helgolandicus during diatom blooms. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 254:253–268. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps254253 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Morehead DT, Battaglene SC, Metillo EB, Bransden MP, Dunstan GA (2005) Copepods as a live feed for striped trumpeter Latris lineate larvae. In: Lee C-S, O’Bryen PJ, Marcus NH (eds) Copepods in Aquaculture. Blackwell Publisher, Iowa, USA, pp 195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Müller-Navarra DC, Brett MT, Liston AM, Goldman CR (2000) A highly unsaturated fatty acid predicts carbon transfer between primary producers and consumers. Nature 403:74–77. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/47469 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Niehoff B, Klenke U, Hirche HJ, Irigoien X, Head R, Harris R (1999) A high frequency time series at Weathership M, Norvegian Sea, during the 1997 spring bloom: the reproductive biology of Calanus finmarchicus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 176:81–92. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps176081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Olivotto I, Capriotti F, Buttino I, Avella AM, Vitiello V, Maradonna F, Carnevali O (2008a) The use of harpacticoid copepods as live prey for Amphiprion clarkii larviculture: effects on larval survival and growth. Aquaculture 274:347–352. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.11.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Olivotto I, Buttino I, Borroni M, Piccinetti CC, Malzone MG (2008b) The use of the Mediterranean calanoid copepod Centropages typicus in yellowtail clownfish (Amphiprion clarkii) larviculture. Aquaculture 284:211–216. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.07.057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Paffenhöfer GA (1970) Cultivation of Calanus helgolandicus under controlled conditions. Helgoländer wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchunghen 20:346–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Paffenhöfer GA, Harris RP (1979) Laboratory culture of marine holozooplankton and its contribution to studies of marine planktonic food webs. Adv Mar Biol 16:211–308. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2881(08)60294-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Paffenhöfer GA, Ianora A, Miralto A, Turner JT, Kleppel GS, Ribera d’Alcalà M, Casotti R, Caldwell GS, Pohnert G, Fontana A et al (2005) Colloquium on diatom-copepod interactions. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 286:293–305. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps286293 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Payne MF, Rippingale RJ (2001) Intensive cultivation of the calanoid copepod Gladioferens imparipes. Aquaculture 201:329–342. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00608-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pond D, Harris R, Head R, Harbour D (1996) Environmental and nutritional factors determining seasonal variability in the fecundity and egg viability of Calanus helgolandicus in coastal waters off Plymouth, UK. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 143:45–63. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps143045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rey C, Harris R, Irigoien X, Head R, Carlotti F (2001) Influence of algal diet on growth and ingestion of Calanus helgolandicus nauplii. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 216:151–165. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps216151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ribera d’Alcalà M, Conversano F, Corato F, Licandro P, Mangoni O, Marino D, Mazzocchi MG, Modigh M, Montresor M, Nardella M, Saggiomo V, Sarno D, Zingone A (2004) Seasonal patterns in plankton communities in a pluriannual time series at a coastal Mediterranean site (Gulf of Naples): an attempt to discern recurrences and trends. Sci Mar 68:65–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schipp G (2006) The use of calanoid copepods in semi-intensive, tropical marine fish larviculture. In: Cruz Suárez LE, Ricque Marie D, Salazar MT, Nieto López MG, Villareal Cavazos DA, Puello Cruz AC, Garcia Ortega A (eds) Advances en Nutrición Acuíscola VIII. VIII Simposium Internacional de Nutrición Acuicola. 15–17 Noviembre. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo Léon, Monterrey, Nuevo Léon, México, pp 84–94Google Scholar
  53. Schipp GR, Bosmans JMP, Marschall AJ (1999) A method for hatchery culture of tropical calanoid copepods, Acartia spp. Aquaculture 174:81–88. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00508-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Turner JT, Ianora A, Miralto A, Laabir M, Esposito F (2001) Decoupling of copepod grazing rates, fecundity and egg hatching success on mixed and alternating diatom and dinoflagellate diets. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 220:187–199. doi: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps220187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Urabe J, Watanabe Y (1992) Possibility of N or P limitation for planktonic cladocerans: an experimental test. Limnol Oceanogr 37:244–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Buttino
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Ianora
    • 1
  • S. Buono
    • 1
  • V. Vitello
    • 1
    • 3
  • G. Sansone
    • 3
    • 4
  • A. Miralto
    • 1
  1. 1.Stazione Zoologica Anton DohrnNaplesItaly
  2. 2.LivornoItaly
  3. 3.CRIAcqUniversità degli Studi di Napoli Federico IIPorticiItaly
  4. 4.Dept. Scienze BiologicheUniversità degli Studi di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations