Marine Biology

, Volume 156, Issue 5, pp 959–967 | Cite as

Mantle-to-shell CaCO3 transfer during shell repair at different hydrostatic pressures in the deep-sea vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)

  • Eniko KadarEmail author
  • Alexandre Lobo-da-Cunha
  • Carlos Azevedo
Original Paper


Calcium carbonate transfer was experimentally examined in hydrothermal mussels Bathymodiolus azoricus, which were collected from 850 m depth at Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent site (31°31′W, 37°50′N) on the Mid Atlantic Ridge in May 2007. In each of four 10-day experiments, groups of mussels were maintained at atmospheric pressure or re-pressurised to depths relevant to their site of occurrence, i.e. 850 m depth at Menez Gwen, 1,750 m at Lucky Strike (31°31′W, 37°18′N) and 2,300 m at Rainbow (31°31′W, 36°13′N). The shells of experimental mussels were perforated and mantle tissue was fixed for light and TEM studies at days 7 and 10 following the injury. Simultaneously, haemocytes from the extrapallial fluid (EPF) at the site of induction were studied. At day 7 the response was most intense in the middle fold of the mantle margin and possibly proportional to hydrostatic pressure. At day 10 the epithelial cells on the mantle surface facing the body cavity produced copious organic secretions that avidly bound calcium. Haemocyte migration was noted within the mantle tissue, and the haemocytes at the mantle surface facing the shell had a Ca-positive granular content. Large haemocytes were detected in the EPF at the injury site, and some showed evidence of an immune reaction while others showed Ca-positive granular content. These results suggest that haemocytes are involved in shell repair in these deep-sea mussels just as in some freshwater and shallow marine molluscs.


Marginal Zone Pearl Oyster Mantle Cavity Mantle Tissue Shell Regeneration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was undertaken under the framework of FISIOVENT-Physiological adaptations to extreme conditions at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, project (POCTI/MAR/55547/2004) funded by FCT, Portugal. Postdoctoral fellowship was awarded to Eniko Kadar by FCT (SFRH-BPD-19625/2004). I thank the crew of R/V Atalante and the ROV team for technical assistance during cage deployment (MOMARETO cruise) and the crew of R/V Arquipelago for the cage recovery. Handling the hyperbaric chamber was made by Mario Laranjo (University of Azores). Dumitilia Rosa (University of Azores) and Teresa Barandela (Biomedical Sciences Institute, Porto) are greatly acknowledged for their help in histology preparations.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eniko Kadar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alexandre Lobo-da-Cunha
    • 3
    • 4
  • Carlos Azevedo
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Plymouth Marine LaboratoryPlymouthUK
  2. 2.IMAR Centre of the University of AzoresHortaPortugal
  3. 3.Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel SalazarUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.CIMAR/UPPortoPortugal

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