Marine Biology

, Volume 156, Issue 5, pp 935–957 | Cite as

Recent distribution and size structure of gelatinous organisms in the southern Black Sea and their interactions with fish catches

  • Erhan MutluEmail author
Original Paper


The spatial distributions of gelatinous organism were studied during three cruises in 2006–2007. These were the first such studies conducted in the southern Black Sea for last decade. Additionally, the different methods of estimating gelatinous organism biomass presently in use were compared and recent situation of pelagic fishery interacting with zooplankton in the Black Sea were overviewed. Biomasses and abundances of both invading Mnemiopsis leidyi, and the resident Aurelia aurita and Pleurobrachia pileus were remarkably reduced (total gelatinous biomass: 417–537 g m−2 in May, June, and 150 g m−2 in October) as compared with those before the 1997 with invasion Beroe ovata in the southern Black Sea. Specimens of B. ovata were detected only in October when individuals with lengths of 10–50 mm comprised 93% of its population. Length–weight based biomasses were significantly variable for all species depending on the size structure in time. Larger sized individuals (>30 mm) of M. leidyi appeared as compared with those before year 1997. The ecosystem of the Black Sea has been suppressed both bottom–up through decreased eutrophication and top–down through reduced grazing on mesozooplankton by M. leidyi that are in turn controlled by grazing by B. ovata. The catch of anchovy was abruptly reduced to 120,000 tons due presumably to the considerably increased catch of its predator, the bonito (64,000 tons) in the year 2005.


Biomass Anticyclonic Eddy Gelatinous Zooplankton Southwestern Area Southeastern Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was funded with the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) and carried out within framework of a project TUBITAK CAYDAG-104Y289 “Assessment of the present state of the Black Sea ecosystem and forecasting its future behavior”. My thanks also go to Sengul Besiktepe, Funda Ustun, Billur Celebi, and Hasan Orek for helping me in sampling and logging the data at the sea, as well as crew of R/V Bilim of IMS-METU. I thank Carin Ashjian, Jessica R Frost and two anonymous referees for giving valuable suggestions in various ways and for correcting the English of this manuscript.


  1. Arashkevich EG, Drits AV, Timonin AG, Kremenetskiy VV (2002) Variability of spatial zooplankton distribution affected by the water dynamics in the northeastern part of the Black Sea. Oceanology (Mosc) 42:79–94Google Scholar
  2. Bamstedt U, Martinussen MB, Matsakis S (1994) Trophodynamics of the two scyphozoan jellyfishes, Aurelia aurita and Cyanea capillata, in western Norway. ICES J Mar Sci 1:369–382. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bax N, Carlton JT, Mathews-Amos A, Headrich RL, Howarth FG, Purcell JE, Rieser A, Gray A (2001) The control of biological invasions in the world’s oceans. Conversat Biol 15:1234–1246. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bilio M, Niermann U (2004) Is the comb jelly really to blame for it all? Mnemiopsis leidyi and the ecological concerns about the Caspian Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 269:173–183. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borodkin SO, Korzhikova LI (1991) Chemical composition of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and evaluation of its role in transformation of biogenic elements in the Black Sea. Oceanology (Mosc) 31:555–558Google Scholar
  6. Caddy JF (1993) Toward a cooperative evaluation of human impacts on fishery ecosystems of enclosed and semi-enclosed seas. Rev Fish Sci 1:57–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chin G, Yeston J (2007) Fishing induces regime change. Science 317:18–19Google Scholar
  8. Clarke A, Peck LS (1991) The physiology of polar marine zooplankton. Polar Res 10:355–370. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cociasu A, Dorogan L, Humborg C, Popa L (1996) Long-term ecological changes in Romanian coastal waters of the Black Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 32:32–38. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Daskalov GM (2002) Overfishing drives atrophic cascade in the Black Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 225:53–63. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Daskalov GM (2003) Long-term changes in fish abundance and environmental indices in the Black Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 255:259–270. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Daskalov GM, Grishin AN, Rodionov S, Mihneva V (2007) Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts. Natl Acad Sci USA 104:10518–10523. doi: PNASCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Finenko GA, Anninsky BE, Romanova ZA, Abolmasova GI, Kideys AE (2001) Chemical composition, respiration and feeding rates of the new Alien ctenophore, Beroe Ovata, in the Black Sea. Hydrobiologia 451:177–186. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Finenko GA, Romanova ZA, Abolmasova GI, Anninsky BE, Svetlichny LS, Hubareva ES, Bat L, Kideys AE (2003) Population dynamics, ingestion, growth and reproduction rates of the invader Beroe ovata and its impact on plankton community in Sevastopol Bay, the Black Sea. J Plankton Res 25:539–549. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Finenko GA, Romanova ZA, Abolmasova GI, Anninsky BE, Pavlovskaya TV, Bat L, Kideys A (2006) Ctenophores-invaders and their role in the trophic dynamics of the planktonic community in the coastal regions off the Crimean coasts of the Black Sea (Sevastopol Bay). Oceanology (Mosc) 46:472–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Greve W (1970) Cultivation experiments on North Sea ctenophores. Helgol Wiss Meeresunters 20:304–317. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gubanova AD, Polikarpov IG, Saburova MA, Prusova IY (2002) Long-term dynamics of mesozooplankton by the example of the copepoda community in Sevastopol Bay (1976–1996). Oceanology (Mosc) 42:512–520Google Scholar
  18. Gucu AC (2002) Can overfishing be responsible for the successful establishment of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black Sea. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 58:439–451. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Humborg C, Ittekkot V, Cociasu A, Bodungen BV (1997) Effect of Danube River dam on Black Sea biogeochemistry and ecosystem structure. Nature 386:385–388. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kamburska L, Stefanova K (2005) Distribution and size structure of non-indigenous ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (Agassiz, 1847) in the west Black Sea, 1998–2001. Acta Zoologica Bulg 57:83–94 Acta Zool BulgGoogle Scholar
  21. Katsanevakis S, Thessalou-Legaki M, Karlou-Riga C, Lefkaditou E, Dimitriou E, Verriopoulos G (2007) Information-theory approach to allometric growth of marine organisms. Mar Biol (Berl) 151:949–959. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kerstan M (1977) Untersuchungen zur Nahrungsökologic von Aurelia aurita Lam. Master Thesis, Kiel UniversityGoogle Scholar
  23. Khoroshilov VS (1993) Seasonal dynamics of the Black Sea population of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Oceanology (Mosc) 33:558–562Google Scholar
  24. Kideys AE (2002) Fall and rise of the Black Sea ecosystem. Science 297:1482–1484. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kideys AE, Romanova Z (2001) Distribution of gelatinous macrozooplankton in the southern Black Sea during 1996–1999. Mar Biol (Berl) 139:535–547. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kideys AE, Kovalev AV, Shulman G, Gordina A, Bingel F (2000) A review of zooplankton investigations of the Black Sea over the last decade. J Mar Syst 24:355–371. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kinoshita J, Hiromi J, Yamada Y (2006) Abundance and biomass of Scyphomedusae, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora melanaster, and Ctenophora, Bolinopsis mikado, with estimates of their feeding impact on zooplankton in Tokyo Bay, Japan. J Oceanogr 62:607–615. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Knowler D (2007) Estimation of a stock–recruitment relationship for Black Sea anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) under the influence of nutrient enrichment and the invasive comb-jelly, Mnemiopsis leidyi. Fish Res 84:275–281. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Konsulov A, Kamburska L (1998) Ecological determination of the new Ctenophora–Beroe ovata invasion in the Black Sea. Proc Inst Oceanol, Varna 2:195–197Google Scholar
  30. Korotaev G, Oguz T, Nikiforov A, Koblinsky C (2003) Seasonal, interannual, and mesoscale variability of the Black Sea upper layer circulation derived from altimeter data. J Geophys Res 108:3122. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kremer P (1976) Population dynamics and ecological energetics of a pulsed zooplankton predators, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, estuarine process, uses, stress and adaptation to estuary, vol 1. Academic press, San Francisco, pp 197–215Google Scholar
  32. Kremer P, Nixon S (1976) Distribution and abundance of the ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi in Narragansett Bay. Estuar Coast Mar Sci 4:627–639. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kroiss H, Zessner M, Lampert C (2006) daNUbs: lessons learned for nutrient management in the Danube basin and its relation to Black Sea eutrophication. Chem Ecol 22:347–357. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lebedeva LP, Shushkina EA, Vinogradov ME, Lukasheva TA, Anokhina LL (2003) Long-term transformation of the mesoplankton structure from the coastal waters of the Northeastern Black Sea under the impact of the ctenophores-invaders. Oceanology (Mosc) 43:670–675Google Scholar
  35. Moncheva S, Gotsis-Skretas O, Pagou K, Krastev A (2001) Phytoplankton blooms in Black Sea and Mediterranean coastal ecosystems subjected to anthropogenic eutrophication: similarities and differences. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 53:281–295. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mutlu E (1999) Distribution and abundance of ctenophores and their zooplankton food in the Black Sea. II. Mnemiopsis leidyi. Mar Biol (Berl) 135:603–613. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mutlu E (2001a) Distribution of gelatinous macrozooplankton and ecosystem change in the Black Sea. In: Gelatinous zooplankton outbreaks: theory and practice. CIESM Workshop Series 14: 75–80Google Scholar
  38. Mutlu E (2001b) Distribution and abundance of moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) and its zooplankton food in the Black Sea. Mar Biol (Berl) 138:329–339. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mutlu E, Bingel F (1999) Distribution and abundance of ctenophores and their zooplankton food in the Black Sea. I. Pleurobrachia pileus. Mar Biol (Berl) 135:589–601. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mutlu E, Bingel F, Gucu AC, Melnikov VV, Niermann U, Ostr NA, Zaika VE (1994) Distribution of the new invader Mnemiopsis sp. and the resident Aurelia aurita and Pleurobrachia pileus populations in the Black Sea in the years 1991–1993. ICES J Mar Sci 51:407–421. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Niermann U, Kideys AE, Besiktepe S, Nicolae B, Goubanova A, Khoroshilov V, Mikaelyan A, Moncheva S, Mutlu E, Nezlin N, Petranu A, Senichkina L, Shiganova T (1995) An assessment of recent phyto- and zooplankton investigations in the Black Sea and planning for future, TU-Black Sea Project,-NATO science for stability program, report on the meeting of marine biologist in Erdemli, Turkey, 20 February–3 March 1995, Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Erdemli, Turkey, p 100Google Scholar
  42. Oguz T (2005a) Long term impacts of anthropogenic forcing on the reorganisation of the Black Sea ecosystem. Oceanography (Wash DC) 18:112–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Oguz T (2005b) Black Sea ecosystem response to climatic variations. Oceanography (Wash DC) 18:122–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Oguz T (2007) Nonlinear response of Black Sea pelagic fish stocks to over-exploitation. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 345:211–228. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oguz T, Gilbert D (2007) Abrupt transitions of the top–down controlled Black Sea pelagic ecosystem during 1960–2000: evidence for regime-shifts under strong fishery exploitation and nutrient enrichment modulated by climate-induced variations. Deep Sea Res Part I Oceanogr Res Pap 54:220–242. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Oguz T, Deshpandeb AG, Malanotte-Rizzoli P (2002) The role of mesoscale processes controlling biological variability in the Black Sea coastal waters: inferences from SeaWIFS-derived surface chlorophyll field. Cont Shelf Res 22:1477–1492. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Oguz T, Dippner JW, Kaymaz Z (2006) Climatic regulation of the Black Sea hydro-meteorological and ecological properties at interannual-to-decadal time scales. J Mar Syst 60:235–254. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ovchinnikov MV, Vinogradov MYe (1991) Winter investigations of the Black Sea ecosystem (The 21st cruise of the R/V Vityaz, February 9–April 8, 1991). Oceanology (Mosc) 31:797–800Google Scholar
  49. Purcell JE (2005) Climate effects on formation of jellyfish and ctenophore blooms: a review. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 3:461–476. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Purcell JE, Decker MB (2005) Effects of climate on relative predation by scyphomedusae and ctenophores on copepods in Chesapeake Bay during 1987–2000. Limnol Oceanogr 50:376–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Purcell JE, White JR, Nemazie DA, Wright DA (1999) Temperature, salinity and food effects on asexual reproduction and abundance of the scyphozoan Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 180:187–196. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Purcell JE, Shiganova TA, Decker MB, Houde ED (2001) The ctenophore Mnemiopsis in native and exotic habitats: US estuaries versus the Black Sea basin. Hydrobiologia 451:145–176. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reeve MR, Walter MA, Ikeda T (1978) Laboratory studies of ingestion and food utilization in lobate and tentaculate ctenophores. Limnol Oceanogr 23:740–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schneider G (1988) Chemische Zusammensetzung und Biomasseparameter der Ohrenqualle Aurelia aurita. Helgol Meeresunters 42:319–327. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Seravin LN, Shiganova TA, Lupova NE (2002) The history of study of ctenophore Beroe ovata (Ctenophora, Atentaculata, Beroida) and some peculiarities of morphology of the representative from the Black Sea. Zoologichesky Jour Zoologičeskij žurnal (Zool ž) 81:1193–1200Google Scholar
  56. Shiganova TA, Bulgakova YV (2000) Effects of gelatinous plankton on Black Sea and Sea of Azov fish and their food resources. ICES J Mar Sci 57:641–648. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shiganova TA, Mirzoyan ZA, Studenikina WA, Volovik SP, Siokou-Frangou I, Zervoudaki S, Christou ED, Skirta AY, Dumont HJ (2001a) Population development of the invader ctenephore Mnemiopsis leidyi, in the Black Sea and in the other seas of the Mediterranean basin. Mar Biol (Berl) 139:431–445. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shiganova TA, Bulgakova YV, Volovik SP, Mirzoyan ZA, Dudkin SI (2001b) The new invader Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 and its effect on the ecosystem in the northeastern Black Sea. Hydrobiologia 451:187–197. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shiganova TA, Musaeva EI, Bulgakova YV, Mirzoyan ZA, Martynyuk ML (2003) Invaders ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz), Beroe ovata (Mayer 1912), and their influence on the pelagic ecosystem of northeastern Black Sea. Biol Bull 30:180–190. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shushkina EA, Musayeva EI (1983) The role of jellyfish in the energy system of the Black Sea plankton communities. Oceanology (Mosc) 23:92–96Google Scholar
  61. Shushkina EA, Musayeva EI (1990a) Structure of the planktonic community of the Black Sea epipelagic zone and its variation caused by invasion of a new ctenophore species. Oceonology 30:225–228Google Scholar
  62. Shushkina EA, Musayeva EI (1990b) Increasing abundance of the immigrant ctenophore Mnemiopsis in the Black Sea (report of an expedition by the R/Vs Akvanavt and Gidrobiolog in April 1990). Oceanology (Mosc) 30:521–522Google Scholar
  63. Shushkina EA, Vinogradov MYe (1991a) Plankton changes in the open Black Sea for many years. Oceanology (Mosc) 31:973–980Google Scholar
  64. Shushkina EA, Vinogradov MYe (1991b) Long-term changes in the biomass of plankton in open areas of the Black Sea. Oceanology (Mosc) 31:716–721Google Scholar
  65. Shushkina EA, Vinogradov ME, Lebedeva LP, Lukasheva TA (2004a) The structure of the coastal plankton communities at the beginning of the cooling cycle (2003) in the northeastern part of the Black Sea. Oceanology (Mosc) 44:836–844Google Scholar
  66. Shushkina EA, Vinogradov ME, Lebedeva LP, Lukasheva TA (2004b) Zooplankton distribution on the shelf of the northeastern Black Sea in the warm climatic period of 2000–2002. Oceanology (Mosc) 44:524–537Google Scholar
  67. Siokou-Frangou I, Shiganova T, Christou ED, Kamburska L, Gubanova A, Konsulov A, Musaeva E, Skryabin V, Khoroshilov V (2004) Mesozooplankton communities in the Aegean and Black Seas: a comparative study. Mar Biol (Berl) 144:1111–1126. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (eds) (1973) Introduction to biostatistics. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  69. Tugrul S, Basturk O, Saydam C, Yilmaz A (1992) Changes in the hydrochemistry of the Black Sea inferred rom the water density profiles. Nature 359:137–139. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tuncer S (1990) An investigation of the common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in the harbour of Trabzon. Zool Middle East 4:117–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Uysal Z, Mutlu E (1993) Preliminary note on the occurrence and biometry of ctenophoran Mnemiopsis leidyi finally invaded Mersin Bay. Doga-Tr J Zool 17:229–236Google Scholar
  72. Vinogradov ME (1990) Investigation of the pelagic ecosystem of the Black Sea (44th cruise of the R/V Dimitry Mendeleyev), 4 July–17 September 1989. Oceanology (Mosc) 30:254–256Google Scholar
  73. Vinogradov ME, Flint MV (1985) Investigation of the pelagic ecosystem of the Black Sea: the sixth cruise of the R/V Vityaz, 19 April–3 June 1984Google Scholar
  74. Vinogradov ME, Shushkina EA (1992) Temporal changes in community structure in the open Black Sea. Oceanology (Mosc) 32:485–491Google Scholar
  75. Vinogradov ME, Tumantseva NI (1993) Some results of investigations of the Black Sea biological communities. Black Sea Country Profile (level II). Marine Science Country Profile, Intergovermental Oceanographic Commission, Unesco, Paris, 3, p 161Google Scholar
  76. Vinogradov ME, Shushkina EA, Flint MV, Tumantseva NI (1986) Plankton in the lower layers of oxygen zone in the Black Sea. Oceanology (Mosc) 26:222–228Google Scholar
  77. Vinogradov ME, Shushkina EA, Musayeva EI, Sorokin PY (1989a) A newly acclimated species in the Black Sea: the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora: Lobata). Oceanology (Mosc) 29:220–224Google Scholar
  78. Vinogradov ME, Shushkina EA, Musayeva EI, Sorokin PY (1989b) Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) (Ctenophora: Lobata): new settlers in the Black Sea. Oceanology (Mosc) 29:293–298Google Scholar
  79. Vinogradov ME, Musayeva EI, Semenova TN (1990) Factors determining the position of the lower layer of the mesoplankton concentration in the Black Sea. Oceanology (Mosc) 30:217–224Google Scholar
  80. Vinogradov ME, Sapozhnikov VV, Shushkina EA (eds) (1992) The Black Sea ecosystem. Moskva, RussiaGoogle Scholar
  81. Vinogradov ME, Shushkina EA, Lukasheva TA (2005a) Population dynamics of the ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi and Beroe ovata as a predator-prey system in the near-shore communities of the Black Sea. Oceanology (Mosc) 45:161–167Google Scholar
  82. Vinogradov ME, Lebedeva LP, Vinogradov GM, Musaeva EI, Lukasheva TA, Zas’ko DN, Anokhina LL, Sivkovich AE (2005b) Monitoring of the pelagic communities of the northeastern part of the Black Sea in 2004: macro- and mesoplankton. Oceanology (Mosc) 45:356–367Google Scholar
  83. Vinogradov ME, Vinogradov GM, Lebedeva LP, Lukasheva TA, Zas’ko DN (2006a) Patterns of ctenophore populations in the northeastern part of the Black Sea in 2005. Oceanology (Mosc) 46:376–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vinogradov ME, Lebedeva LP, Lukasheva TA, Anokhina LL (2006b) Condition of coastal mesoplankton communities in the northeastern area of the Black Sea in 2005. Oceanology (Mosc) 46:817–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Weilguni H, Humpesch UH (1999) Long-term trends of physical, chemical and biological variables in the River Danube 1957–1995: a statistical approach. Aquat Sci 61:234–259. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Weisse T, Gomoiu MT (2000) Biomass and size structure of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita in the northwestern Black Sea during spring and summer. J Plankton Res 22:223–239. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Weisse T, Gomoiu MT, Scheffel U, Brodrecht F (2002) Biomass, size composition of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis sp. in the north-western Black Sea during spring 1997 and summer 1995. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 54:423–437. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yilmaz A, Tugrul S, Polat C, Ediger D, Coban Y, Morkoc E (1998) On the production, elemental composition (C, N, P) and distribution of photosynthetic organic matter in the southern Black Sea. Hydrobiologia 363:141–145. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yunev OA, Vedernikov VI, Basturk O, Yilmaz A, Kideys AE, Moncheva S, Konovalov SK (2002) Long-term variations of surface chlorophyll a and primary production in the open Black Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:11–28. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yunev OA, Moncheva S, Carstensen J (2005) Long-term variability of vertical chlorophyll a and nitrate profiles in the open Black Sea: eutrophication and climate change. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 294:95–107. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zaika VYe, Sergeeva NG (1990) Morphology and development of Mnemiopsis mccradyi (Ctenophora: Lobata) in the Black Sea. Zoological J 69:5–11Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Institute of Marine Sciences and TechnologyDokuz Eylul UniversityIzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations