Marine Biology

, Volume 156, Issue 2, pp 97–106 | Cite as

Hydrostatic pressure-induced apoptosis on nauplii of Calanus sinicus

  • Tomoko YoshikiEmail author
  • Banri Yamanoha
  • Tomohiko Kikuchi
  • Akio Shimizu
  • Tatsuki Toda
Original Paper


The effect of hydrostatic pressure on embryonic development of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus was studied. Differences of pressure effect among blastomere stages, 1-cell, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, blastula and limb-bud stage, were examined under two pressurizing conditions, abruptly (10 atm/min) and gradually (0.1 atm/min) increasing. Egg hatching success, deformity frequency and apoptotic cell degradation of hatched nauplii were examined. Egg hatching success rate was not significantly different between blastomere stages, and also between pressurizing conditions. Deformity frequencies of hatched nauplii were low in the early 1-cell and 2-cell stages, and high in the later blastula and limb-bud stages, in both abrupt and gradual pressurizing conditions. On the other hand, in regard to difference in pressurizing conditions, deformity frequency in gradual pressurizing was significantly higher than that in abrupt pressurizing rate. Gradual pressure increase seems to be more harmful to C. sinicus eggs than abrupt pressure change. Apoptosis induced in nauplii by hydrostatic pressure was detected for the first time in marine zooplankton. The embryos of C. sinicus are sensitive to pressure variations, that is, these embryos are supposed to sink to deeper waters, incurring greater risk of having deformities. In the field, C. sinicus ascend to the surface and spawn at night. By looking from this upward behavior, eggs are spawned at lower pressure and warmer temperature. Probably, the harmless low pressure and warm temperature lead eggs to hatch early and to recruit successfully.


Hydrostatic Pressure Propidium Iodide Unsaturated Aldehyde Blastula Stage Gradual Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Dr. T. Yoshida, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, and Dr. H. Miyaguchi and Ms. S. P. Kok, Soka Univerisity, for their valuable suggestions that improved the article. Our gratitude is extended to Prof. S. Taguchi, Drs. N. Nagao and Y. Onoue, Soka University, for their helpful comments in this manuscript. We are also indebted to Mr. Y. Asakura and the crew of the R. V. “Tachibana”, Manazuru Marine Laboratory for Science Education, Yokohama National University, for their support in collecting samples. This research was partially funded by the University joint Research Project for Private Universities: matching fund subsidy from MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture Sports, Science and Technology), 2004–2008.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomoko Yoshiki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Banri Yamanoha
    • 1
  • Tomohiko Kikuchi
    • 2
  • Akio Shimizu
    • 1
  • Tatsuki Toda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of EngineeringSoka UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Hydrographic Science, Faculty of Education and Human ScienceYokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan

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