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Marine Biology

, Volume 155, Issue 5, pp 505–520 | Cite as

Comparative foraging ecology and ecological niche of a superabundant tropical seabird: the sooty tern Sterna fuscata in the southwest Indian Ocean

  • S. Jaquemet
  • M. Potier
  • Y. Cherel
  • J. Kojadinovic
  • P. Bustamante
  • P. Richard
  • T. Catry
  • J. A. Ramos
  • M. Le Corre
Original Paper

Abstract

Over 6-million pairs of sooty terns Sterna fuscata breed once a year in the southwest Indian Ocean, mostly on three islands of the Mozambique Channel (Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorieuses) and in the Seychelles region. Seasonal reproduction in either winter or summer is the dominant strategy in the area, but non-seasonal reproduction also occurred in some places like at Glorieuses Archipelago. The feeding ecology of the sooty tern was investigated during the breeding seasons to determine whether terns showed significant differences in their trophic ecology between locations. Regurgitations were analyzed to describe the diet of individuals when breeding, and stable isotopes and mercury concentrations were used to temporally integrate over the medium-term of the trophic ecology of both adults and chicks. Overall, the diet was composed of fish, flying squid and fish larvae in different proportions. At Europa and Aride in the Seychelles, where winter reproduction occurs, large epipelagic prey like flying fish or squid dominated the diet. At Juan de Nova, sooty terns reproduce in summer and rely mostly on fish larvae. At Glorieuses (non-seasonal breeding), the diet was intermediate with fish larvae and flying squid being important prey items. The stable-carbon and nitrogen isotope values in blood confirm the differences observed in dietary analysis, and demonstrate different feeding strategies between colonies. δ13C values of feathers showed spatial segregation between birds from the Mozambique Channel and the Seychelles region. Terns from the Seychelles had also higher δ15N values. Feather δ13C values also suggest a significant shift from summer to wintering habitat for birds from Juan de Nova. This study emphasizes the high phenotypic plasticity of the species, which may explain its numerical dominance in all tropical waters of the World’s Ocean.

Keywords

Prey Item Mercury Concentration Fish Larva Marine Bird Southwest Indian Ocean 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank M. Salamolard, M. Charrier, F. Saint-Ange, E. Robert for their help in the field, the Direction Régionale de l’Environnement (DIREN) of Ile de la Réunion for financial support and the Préfet de la Réunion for authorization to work on the French Islands of the Mozambique Channel. The FAZSOI transported and logistically supported us in the field. SJ benefited from a Ph.D. scholarship from the French Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche during this study, and TC was funded by a doctoral grant from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (SFRH/BD/16706/2004). Aride Island Nature Reserve Seychelles gave access to the island for fieldwork.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Jaquemet
    • 1
  • M. Potier
    • 2
  • Y. Cherel
    • 3
  • J. Kojadinovic
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • P. Bustamante
    • 4
  • P. Richard
    • 4
  • T. Catry
    • 6
  • J. A. Ramos
    • 6
  • M. Le Corre
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Ecologie MarineUniversité de la RéunionSaint Denis, Ile de la RéunionFrance
  2. 2.Institut de Recherche pour le DéveloppementCentre de la RéunionSainte-Clotilde, Ile de la RéunionFrance
  3. 3.Centre d’Etudes Biologiques de ChizéUPR 1934 du CNRSVilliers-en-BoisFrance
  4. 4.Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystèmes Littoraux AnthropisésUMR 6217, CNRS-IFREMER-Université de la RochelleLa Rochelle Cedex 01France
  5. 5.EMI, Université de NantesNantes Cedex 3France
  6. 6.Department of Zoology, Institute of Marine Research (IMAR)University of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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