Spatial variation in reproductive output from different populations within a region could have important consequences for recruitment, and cascading effects on populations and communities of marine species, but is rarely examined over meso-scales (i.e., tens to hundreds of kilometers). In this study, reproduction in the dominant mid-intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus, was examined from sites spanning Point Conception, California over a 6-month period (March–August 2000). There was a dramatic geographic pattern in the relationship between size and potential reproductive output that was qualitatively similar across all 6 months sampled. Increases in allocation to reproductive tissue with increasing body size occurred at all sites, but the slope nearly doubled at sites south of Point Conception compared to northern sites. The spatial variation in size-specific reproductive output, coupled with additional spatial gradients in mussel density and size distributions, combined to increase total reproductive output by over eightfold at southern relative to northern sites. This study highlights the need to explicitly examine spatial patterns of reproductive output at these meso-scales, in order to better understand connectivity and source–sink dynamics in marine systems.
Particulate Organic Carbon Reproductive Output Reproductive Tissue Point Conception Northern Site
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
For generous field and laboratory help I thank: C. Galst, M. Meyers, N. Hernandez, C. McGary, and E. Fikre; and for logistical support of field work: C. Svedlund and C. Blanchette. This research was supported by funds from an NSF graduate fellowship to the author, also in part by NSF BIR94-13141 and NSF GER93-54870 to W. Murdoch, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation to S. Gaines. This is contribution number 232 from PISCO, the Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans, funded primarily by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and David and Lucile Packard Foundation. The experiments reported here comply with the current laws of the USA.
Bayne BL, Bayne CJ, Carefoot TC, Thompson RJ (1976) The physiological ecology of Mytilus californianus Conrad I. Metabolism and energy balance. Oecologia 2:211–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bertness MD, Gaines SD, Bermudez D, Sanford E (1991) Extreme spatial variation in the growth and reproductive output of the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 75:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanchette CA, Miner BG, Gaines SD (2002) Geographic variability in form, size and survival of Egregia menziesii around Point Conception, California. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 239:69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borerro FJ (1987) Tidal height and gametogenesis: reproductive variation among populations of Geukensia demissa. Biol Bull 173:160–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brink KH, Chausse D, Davis RE (1984) Observation of the coastal upwelling region near 34°30′N off California: spring 1981. J Phys Oceanogr 14:378–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coe WR, Fox DL (1942) Biology of the California sea-mussel (Mytilus californianus). I. Influence of temperature, food supply, sex and age on the rate of growth. J Exp Zool 90:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dittman D, Robles C (1991) Effect of algal epiphytes on the mussel Mytilus californianus. Ecology 72:286–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elvin DW (1974) Oogenesis in Mytilus californianus. PhD Dissertation. University of OregonGoogle Scholar
Franz DR (1997) Resource allocation in the intertidal sal-marsh mussel Geukensia demissa in relation to shore level. Estuaries 20:134–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffiths RJ (1977) Reproductive cycles in littoral populations of Chromomytilus meriodonalis (Kr) and Aulacomya ater (Molina) with a quantitative assessment of gamete production in the former. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 30:53–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harvey M, Vincent B (1989) Spatial and temporal variations in the reproduction cycle and energy allocation of the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) on a tidal flat. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 129:199–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harvey M, Vincent B (1991) Spatial variability of length-specific production in shell, somatic tissue and sexual products of Macomabalthica in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary. I. Small and meso scale variability. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 75:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hickey BM (1979) The California Current system—hypotheses and facts. Prog Oceanogr 8:191–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hickey BM (1993) Physical oceanography. In: Dailey MD, Anderson JW, Reish DJ, Gorsline DS (eds) Ecology of the Southern California Bight: a synthesis and interpretation. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 19–70Google Scholar
Leslie HM, Breck EN, Chan F, Lubchenco J, Menge BA (2005) Barnacle reproductive hotspots linked to nearshore ocean conditions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:10534–10539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Okamura B (1986) Group living and the effects of spatial position in aggregations of Mytilus edulis. Oecologia 69:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips NE (2005) Growth of filter-feeding benthic invertebrates from a region with variable upwelling intensity. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 295:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seed R (1969) The ecology of Mytilus edulis L. (Lamellibranchiata) on exposed rocky shores I. Breeding and settlement. Oecologia 3:277–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sibly RM, Calow P (1986) Physiological ecology of animals. An evolutionary approach. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
Sprung M (1983) Reproduction and fecundity of the mussel Mytilus edulis at Helgoland (North Sea). Helgol Meer 36:243–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stearns SC (1992) The evolution of life histories. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
Strathmann MF (1987) Reproduction and development of marine invertebrates of the Northern Pacific coast. University of Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar