Effects of salinity on the clam Chamelea gallina haemocytes. Part II: Superoxide dismutase response
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The effects of different salinity levels (28, 34 and 40‰) on functional responses of Chamelea gallina haemocytes were evaluated in a two part study dealing with modulations of immune parameters. This part (Part II) of the study was focused on the superoxide dismutase (SODs) activity and expression in haemocyte lysate and cell-free haemolymph. Results of this study established that the exposure of C. gallina specimens at 40‰ salinity provoked a decrease in Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD activities in haemocyte lysate suggesting a declining superoxide anion generation at the highest salinity tested. Expression of MnSOD was coherent with activity values, while Cu/ZnSOD showed two immunoreactive bands. The former corresponds to the cytosolic Cu/Zn-SOD (16 kDa) was not coherent with the enzyme activity and the second (28–30 kDa) probably attributed to EC-SOD. In cell-free haemolymph, Mn-SOD activity decrease and Cu/Zn-SOD activity increase at 40‰ were observed, likely due to EC-SOD contribution, strongly induced at the same salinity. After EC-SOD detection with two different antibody, we postulate that the EC-SOD like-protein band (29 kDa) may be constitute partly by EC-SOD and probably by Cu/Zn-SOD dimeric form not completely dissociated under reducing condition or a Cu/Zn-SOD degenerated but still recognized by antibody. The cell-free haemolymph increase of EC-SOD at high salinity values plays an important role in immune defence of C. gallina. According to the conclusion of Part I of this study, our data confirmed the destabilizing effect of 40‰ salinity on haemocyte functionality, while to 28‰ exposure, data don’t confirm its stressful action as instead stated by results of Part I. Further studies are necessary to clear up this discrepancy.
KeywordsSalinity Level Apparent Molecular Weight Superoxide Dismutase Activity Superoxide Anion Generation Experimental Salinity
This work was supported by grants from the Italian MIPAF to Dr. O. Cattani (contr. no. 6C66). The authors wish to thank Mr. Keith Smith for revising the English text.
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