Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 150, Issue 6, pp 1127–1135 | Cite as

Spatial variation in dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) production in Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) from the Northeast Pacific

  • Kathryn L. Van AlstyneEmail author
  • Lauren Koellermeier
  • Timothy A. Nelson
Research Article

Abstract

Although dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) has a variety of functions in marine macroalgae including that of a cryoprotectant, an osmolyte, a way to remove excess sulfur and energy, an antioxidant, and an allelopathic precursor, the latter two functions are believed to be the most important in Ulva lactuca L. (=U. fenestrata) in intertidal populations on the coast of Washington state, USA. The present study found significant variation in DMSP concentrations among U. lactuca collected in May 2005 from six sites ranging from 47°54.45′N (Possession Point, Whidbey Island, WA, USA) to 48°30.55′N (Shannon Point Beach, Anacortes, WA, USA), and also among individuals within sites, and among tissues (basal tissues near the holdfast, middle of the blades, and tips). Concentrations ranged from 37 to 224 μmol g−1 fresh mass (FM). In several 10-day experiments between July 2001 and August 2004 with U. lactuca collected from several places on the coast of Washington, the effects of nutrient level (DIN), light intensity and wavelength, and grazing by the herbivorous gastropod Lacuna vincta, were examined. None of these manipulations resulted in DMSP concentrations that differed significantly from controls, and variance in DMSP concentrations within each experiment was very low. Although DMSP concentrations in U. lactuca may be affected by factors not tested in these experiments, it is also possible that the observed spatial differences reflect constitutive genotypic or phenotypic differences among geographically separated U. lactuca populations or among cryptic Ulva species.

Keywords

Ulva Fresh Mass Basal Tissue DMSP Concentration Dimethylsulfoniopropionate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to H. Ribarich, D. Simunds, and S. Gifford for their help in the field and laboratory, and K. Pelletreau for assisting with the carbon and nitrogen analyses. We also thank Dennis Willows and the staff at the Friday Harbor Marine Laboratory for providing facilities and useful advice. This work was supported by a grant from the Murdock Charitable Trust to T. Nelson (99161:JVX:02/24/00) and National Science Foundation grants to K. Van Alstyne and Shannon Point Marine Center (DBI-9877129, DBI-0090825, and DBI-0098409).

Supplementary material

227_2006_448_MOESM1_ESM.doc (467 kb)
Supplementary material

References

  1. Arnold T, Tanner C, Hatch W (1995) Phenotypic variation in polyphenolic content of the tropical brown alga Lobophora variegata as a function of nitrogen availability. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 123:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bold H, Wynne M (1985) Introduction to the algae. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  3. Bryant JP, Chapin FSI, Klein DR (1983) Carbon/nutrient balance of boreal plants in relation to herbivory. Oikos 40:357–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cantoni G, Anderson D (1956) Enzymatic cleavage of dimethylpropiothetin by Polysiphonia lanosa. J Biol Chem 222:171–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cronin G (2003) Resource allocation in seaweeds and marine invertebrates: chemical defense patterns in relation to defense theories. In: McClintock J, Baker BJ (eds) Marine chemical ecology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 325–354Google Scholar
  6. Cronin G, Hay ME (1996a) Chemical defenses, protein content, and susceptibility to herbivory of diploid vs. haploid stages of the isomorphic brown alga Dictyota ciliolata (Phaeophyta). Botanica Marina 39:395–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cronin G, Hay ME (1996b) Effects of light and nutrient availability on the growth, secondary chemistry, and resistance to herbivory of two brown seaweeds. Oikos 77:93–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Denton A, Chapman ARO, Markham J (1990) Size-specific concentrations of phlorotannins (anti-herbivore compounds) in three species of Fucus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 65:103–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Edwards DM, Reed RH, Chudek JA, Foster R, Stewart WDP (1987) Organic solute accumulation in osmotically-stressed Enteromorpha intestinalis. Mar Biol 95:583–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Edwards DM, Reed RH, Stewart WDP (1988) Osmoacclimation in Enteromorpha intestinalis: long-term effects of osmotic stress on organic solute accumulation. Mar Biol 88:457–476Google Scholar
  11. Hay M, Paul V, Lewis S, Gustafson K, Tucker J, Trindell R (1988) Can tropical seaweed to reduce herbivory by growing at night? Diel patterns of growth, nitrogen content, herbivory, and chemical versus morphological defenses. Oecologia 75:233–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayden H, Waaland J (2002) Phylogenetic systematics of the Ulvaceae (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae) using chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. J Phycol 28:1200–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hayden H, Waaland J (2004) A molecular systematic study of Ulva (Ulvaceae, Ulvales) from the Northeast Pacific. Phycologia 43:364–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hayden H, Blomster J, Maggs C, Silva P, Stanhope M, Waaland J (2003) Linnaeus was right all along: Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinct genera. Eur J Phycol 38:277–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ilvessalo H, Tuomi J (1987) Nutrient availability and accumulation of phenolic compounds in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. Mar Biol 101:115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Karsten U, Wiencke C, Kirst GO (1991) Growth pattern and beta-dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) content of marine macroalgae at different irradiances. Mar Biol 108:151–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Karsten U, Wiencke C, Kirst GO (1992) Dimethylsulphonio-propionate (DMSP) accumulation in green macroalgae from polar to temperate regions: interactive effects of light versus salinity and light versus temperature. Polar Biol 12:603–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kirst G (1989) Salinity tolerance of eukaryotic marine algae. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40:21–53Google Scholar
  19. Kirst GO, Thiel C, Wolff H, Nothnagel J, Wanzek M, Ulmke R (1991) Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) in ice-algae and its possible biological role. Mar Chem 35:381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Newton J, Albertson S, Van Voorhis K, Siegel E (2002) Washington State marine water quality, 1998 through 2000. Washington State Department of Ecology, 02–03–056, OlympiaGoogle Scholar
  21. O’Clair R, Lindstrom S (2000) North Pacific seaweeds. Plant Press, Auke BayGoogle Scholar
  22. Padilla DK (1983) Rip stop in marine algae: minimizing the consequences of herbivore damage. Evol Ecol 7:634–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Paul VJ, Van Alstyne KL (1988) Chemical defense and chemical variation in some tropical Pacific species of Halimeda (Halimediaceae; Chlorophyta). Coral Reefs 6:263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Paul VJ, Van Alstyne KL (1992) Activation of chemical defenses in the tropical marine algae Halimeda spp. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 160:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Puglisi MP, Paul VJ (1997) Intraspecific variation in the red alga Portierria hornemannii: monoterpene concentrations are not influenced by nitrogen or phosphorus enrichment. Mar Biol 128:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Reed RH (1983) The osmotic significance of tertiary sulfonium and quaternary ammonium compounds in marine macroalgae. Br Ecol Soc 18:208Google Scholar
  27. Sieburth JMN (1960) Acrylic acid, and “antibiotic” principle in Phaeocystis blooms in Antarctic waters. Science 132:676–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stefels J (2000) Physiological aspects of the production and conversion of DMSP in marine algae and higher plants. J Sea Res 43:183–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Steinberg PD (1992) Geographical variation in the interaction between marine herbivores and brown algal secondary metabolites. In: Paul V (ed) Ecological roles of marine natural products. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp 245Google Scholar
  30. Steinberg PD, Estes JA, Winter FC (1995) Evolutionary consequences of food chain length in kelp forest communities. Proc Nat Acad Sci 92:8145–8148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sunda WG, Kieber D, Kiene R, Huntsman S (2002) An antioxidant function for DMSP and DMS in marine algae. Nature 418:317–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Van Alstyne KL (1988) Herbivore grazing increases polyphenolic defenses in the intertidal brown alga Fucus distichus. Ecology 69:655–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Van Alstyne KL, Houser LT (2003) Dimethylsulfide release during macroinvertebrate grazing and its role as an activated chemical defense. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 250:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Van Alstyne KL, McCarthy JJ III, Hustead CL, Duggins DO (1999) Geographic variation in polyphenolic levels of Northeastern Pacific kelps and rockweeds. Mar Biol 133:371–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Van Alstyne KL, Ehlig JM, Whitman SL (2000) Ontogenetic shifts in phlorotannin production, nutritional quality, and susceptibility to herbivory in marine brown algae. Mar Biol 180:179–185Google Scholar
  36. Van Alstyne KL, Wolfe GV, Freidenburg TL, Neill A, Hicken C (2001) Activated defense systems in marine macroalgae: evidence for an ecological role for DMSP cleavage. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 213:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Alstyne KL, Dethier MN, Duggins DO (2003a) Spatial patterns in macroalgal chemical defenses. In: McClintock J, Baker W (eds) Marine chemical ecology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 301–324Google Scholar
  38. Van Alstyne KL, Pelletreau KN, Rosario K (2003b) The effects of salinity on dimethylsulfoniopropionate production in the green alga Ulva fenestrata Postels et Ruprecht (Chlorophyta). Botanica Marina 46:350–356Google Scholar
  39. Whitledge T, Malloy S, Patton CJ, Wirick C (1981) Automated nutrient analyses in seawater. Brookhaven National Lab, UptonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wolfe GV, Steinke M, Kirst GO (1997) Grazing-activated chemical defence in a unicellular marine alga. Nature 387:894–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wright J, de Nys R, Steinberg P (2000) Geographic variation in halogenated furanones from the red alga Delisea pulchra and associated herbivores and epiphytes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 207:227–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yates JL, Peckol P (1993) Effects of nutrient availability and herbivory on polyphenolics in the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Ecology 74:1757–1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathryn L. Van Alstyne
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lauren Koellermeier
    • 1
  • Timothy A. Nelson
    • 2
  1. 1.Shannon Point Marine CenterWestern Washington UniversityAnacortesUSA
  2. 2.Blakely Island Field StationSeattle Pacific UniversitySeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations