Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 150, Issue 2, pp 261–271 | Cite as

Effects of mussel (Perna canaliculus) biodeposit decomposition on benthic respiration and nutrient fluxes

  • Hilke Giles
  • Conrad A. Pilditch
Research Article

Abstract

Suspension-feeding bivalves increase the quantity and quality of sedimenting organic matter through the production of faeces and pseudofaeces that are remineralised in coastal sediments and thus increase sediment oxygen demand and nutrient regeneration. Bivalves are intensively cultivated worldwide; however, no bivalve biodeposit decay rates are available to parameterise models describing the environmental effects of bivalve culture. We examined sediment biogeochemical changes as bivalve biodeposits age by incubating coastal sediments to which we added fresh mussel (Perna canaliculus) biodeposits and measured O2 and nutrient fluxes as well as sediment characteristics over an 11-day period. Biodeposits elevated organic matter, chlorophyll a, phaeophytin a, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in the surface sediments. Sediment oxygen consumption (SOC) increased significantly (P=0.016) by ∼1.5 times to 1,010 μmol m−2 h−1 immediately after biodeposit addition and remained elevated compared to control cores without additions for the incubation period. This increase is in the range of observed in situ oxygen demand enhancements under mussel farms. To calculate a decay rate for biodeposits in sediments we fitted a first-order G model to the observed increase in SOC. The significant model fit (P=0.001, r2=0.72) generated a decay rate of 0.16 day−1 (P=0.033, SE=0.05) that corresponds to a half-life time of 4.3 day. This decay rate is 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than published decay rates of coastal sediments without organic enrichment but similar to rates of decaying zooplankton faecal pellets. NH 4 + release increased rapidly on the day of biodeposit addition (P=0.013) and reached a maximum of 144 μmol m−2 h−1 after 5 days which was 3.6 times higher compared to control cores. During this period NH 4 + release was significantly (P<0.001 to P=0.043) higher in the cores with biodeposit additions than in control cores.

Keywords

Decay Rate Faecal Pellet Nutrient Flux Coastal Sediment Sediment Oxygen Demand 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank D. Bell for help in the field and D. and M. Aislabe for access to their mussel farm. We also thank K. Vopel for suggestions on an earlier version of this manuscript. A University of Waikato postgraduate scholarship funded the first author; this is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Arar EJ, Collins GB (1997) In vitro determination of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a in marine and freshwater algae by fluorescence. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  2. Bacher C, Bioteau H, Chapelle A (1995) Modelling the impact of a cultured oyster population on the nitrogen dynamics: the Thau Lagoon case (France). Ophelia 42:29–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chapelle A, Menesguen A, Deslous-Paoli J-M, Souchu P, Mazouni N, Vaquer A, Millet B (2000) Modelling nitrogen, primary production and oxygen in a Mediterranean lagoon. Impact of oysters farming and inputs from the watershed. Ecol Model 127:161–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Christensen PB, Glud RN, Dalsgaard T, Gillespie P (2003) Impacts of longline mussel farming on oxygen and nitrogen dynamics and biological communities of coastal sediments. Aquaculture 218:567–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. van Duyl FC, van Raaphorst W, Kop AJ (1993) Benthic bacterial production and nutrient sediment–water exchange in sandy North Sea sediments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 100:85–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Enoksson V (1993) Nutrient recycling by coastal sediments: effects of added algal material. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 92:245–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fabiano M, Danovaro R, Olivari E, Misic C (1994) Decomposition of faecal matter and somatic tissue of Mytilus galloprovincialis: changes in organic matter composition and microbial succession. Mar Biol 119:375–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Garber JH (1984) 15N tracer study of the short-term fate of particulate organic nitrogen at the surface of coastal marine sediments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 16:89–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giles H, Pilditch CA (2004) Effects of diet on sinking rates and erosion thresholds of mussel Perna canaliculus biodeposits. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 282:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Graf G, Bengtsson W, Diesner U, Schulz R, Theede H (1982) Benthic response to sedimentation of a spring phytoplankton bloom: process and budget. Mar Biol 67:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grenz C, Hermin M-N, Baudinet D, Daumas R (1990) In situ biochemical and bacterial variation of sediments enriched with mussel biodeposits. Hydrobiologia 207:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hansen B, Fotel FL, Jensen NJ, Madsen SD (1996) Bacteria associated with a marine planktonic copepod in culture. II. Degradation of fecal pellets produced on a diatom, a nanoflagellate or a dinoflagellate diet. J Plankton Res 18:275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hargrave BT (1976) The central role of invertebrate faeces in sediment decomposition. In: Anderson JM, Macfayden A (eds) The role of terrestrial and aquatic organisms in decomposition processes. Blackwell, Great Britain, pp 301–321Google Scholar
  14. Harris JM (1993) The presence, nature and role of gut microflora in aquatic invertebrates: a synthesis. Microb Ecol 25:195–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hatcher A, Grant B, Schofield B (1994) Effects of suspended mussel culture (Mytilus spp.) on sedimentation, benthic respiration and sediment nutrient dynamics in a coastal bay. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 115:219–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hawkins AJS, James MR, Hickman RW, Hatton S, Weatherhead M (1999) Modelling of suspension-feeding and growth in the green-lipped mussel Perna canaliculus exposed to natural and experimental variations of seston availability in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 191:217–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Henderson A, Gamito S, Karakassis I, Pederson P, Smaal A (2001) Use of hydrodynamic and benthic models for managing environmental impacts of marine aquaculture. J Appl Ichthyol 17:163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Herbert RA (1999) Nitrogen cycling in coastal marine ecosystems. FEMS Microbiol Rev 23:563–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ingalls AE, Aller RC, Lee C, Sun M-Y (2000) The influence of deposit-feeding on chlorophyll-a degradation in coastal marine sediments. J Mar Res 58:631–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jeffs AG, Holland RC, Hooker SH, Hayden BJ (1999) Overview and bibliography of research on the Greenshell mussel, Perna canaliculus, from New Zealand waters. J Shellfish Res 18:347–360Google Scholar
  21. Kaspar HF, Gillespie PA, Boyer IC, MacKenzie AL (1985) Effects of mussel aquaculture on the nitrogen cycle and benthic communities in Kenepuru Sound, Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. Mar Biol 85:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kautsky N, Evans S (1987) Role of biodeposition by Mytilus edulis in the circulation of matter and nutrients in a Baltic coastal ecosystem. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 38:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kelly JR, Nixon SR (1984) Experimental studies of the effect of organic deposition on the metabolism of a coastal marine bottom community. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 17:157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kristensen E, Blackburn TH (1987) The fate of organic carbon and nitrogen in experimental marine sediment systems: Influence of bioturbation and anoxia. J Mar Res 45:231–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kristensen E, Holmer M (2001) Decomposition of plant materials in marine sediment exposed to different electron acceptors (O2, NO3, and SO42−), with emphasis on substrate origin, degradation kinetics, and the role of bioturbation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 65:419–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kristensen E, Mikkelsen OL (2003) Impact of the burrow-dwelling polychaete Nereis diversicolor on the degradation of fresh and aged macroalgal detritus in a coastal marine sediment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 265:141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mazouni N, Gaertner J-C, Deslous-Paoli J-M, Landrein S, d’Oedenberg MG (1996) Nutrient and oxygen exchanges at the water–sediment interface in a shellfish farming lagoon (Thau, France). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 205:91–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Newell RIE (2004) Ecosystem influences of natural and cultivated populations of suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs: a review. J Shellfish Res 23:51–61Google Scholar
  29. Newell RIE, Cornwell JC, Owens MS (2002) Influence of simulated bivalve biodeposition and microphytobenthos on sediment nitrogen dynamics: a laboratory study. Limnol Oceanogr 47:1367–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Porter ET, Cornwell JC, Sanford LP (2004) Effect of oysters Crassostrea virginica and bottom shear velocity on benthic–pelagic coupling and estuarine water quality. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 271:61–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Redfield AC (1934) On the proportions of organic derivatives in sea water and their relation to the composition of plankton. In: Daniel RJ (ed) James Johnstone Memorial Volume. University Press, Liverpool, pp 176–192Google Scholar
  32. Singer JK, Anderson JB, Ledbetter MT, McCave IN, Jones KPN, Wright R (1988) An assessment of analytical techniques for the size analysis of fine-grained sediments. J Sediment Petrol 58:534–543Google Scholar
  33. Stuart V, Newell RC, Lucas MI (1982) Conversion of kelp debris and faecal material from the mussel Aulacomya ater by marine micro-organisms. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 7:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sun M-Y, Lee C, Aller RC (1993) Laboratory studies of oxic and anoxic degradation of chlorophyll-a in Long Island Sound sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tenore KR, Boyer LF, Cal RM, Corral J, Garcia-Fernandez C, Gonzalez N, Gonzalez-Gurriaran E, Hanson RB, Iglesias J, Krom M, Lopez-Jamar E, McClain J, Pamatmat MM, Perez A, Rhoads DC, de Santiago G, Tietjen J, Westrich J, Windom HL (1982) Coastal upwelling in the Rias Bajas, NW Spain: contrasting the benthic regimes of the Rias de Arosa and de Muros. J Mar Res 40:701–772Google Scholar
  36. Urban-Rich J (1999) Release of dissolved organic carbon from copepod fecal pellets in the Greenland Sea. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 232:107–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Verardo DJ, Froelich PN, McIntyre A (1990) Determination of organic carbon and nitrogen in marine sediments using the Carlo Erba NA-1500 analyzer. Deep-Sea Res 37:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Westrich JT, Berner RA (1984) The role of sedimentary organic matter in bacterial sulfate reduction: the G model tested. Limnol Oceanogr 29:236–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wotton RS, Malmqvist B (2001) Feces in aquatic ecosystems. BioScience 51:537–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of WaikatoHamiltonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations