Marine Biology

, Volume 149, Issue 3, pp 491–502 | Cite as

Cryptic species and population structuring of the Atlantic and Pacific seabob shrimp species, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri and Xiphopenaeus riveti

  • J. GusmãoEmail author
  • C. Lazoski
  • F. A. Monteiro
  • A. M. Solé-Cava
Research Article


Seabob shrimps of the genus Xiphopenaeus are important fishery resources along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central and South America. The genus was considered to comprise two species: the Atlantic Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, Sitzungsber Math Naturwiss cl kaiserliche Akad Wiss Wien 45:389–426, 1862), and the Pacific Xiphopenaeus riveti (Bouvier, Bull Mus Hist Nat Paris 13:113–116, 1907). In a recent review, Xiphopenaeus was regarded as a monotypic genus, on the basis that no clear morphological differences could be found between Pacific and Atlantic specimens (Pérez Farfante and Kensley, Mem Mus Nat Hist Nat Paris 175:1–79, 1997). In the present work, nuclear (allozymes), and mitochondrial (Cytochrome Oxidase I) genes were used to demonstrate the validity of X. riveti and reveal the presence of two cryptic species of Xiphopenaeus within X. kroyeri in the Atlantic Ocean. The high levels of molecular divergence among these species contrast with their high morphological resemblance. Interspecific sequence divergences (Kimura 2-parameter distance) varied from 0.106 to 0.151, whereas intraspecific distances ranged from 0 to 0.008 in Xiphopenaeus sp. 1, from 0 to 0.003 in Xiphopenaeus sp. 2, and from 0.002 to 0.005 in X. riveti. In addition, five diagnostic allozyme loci were found between sympatric samples of Xiphopenaeus sp. 1 and 2 along the Brazilian coast. The results suggest that Xiphopenaeus sp. 2 from the Atlantic is more closely related to the Pacific X. riveti than to the Atlantic Xiphopenaeus sp. 1. Furthermore, a high level of genetic structuring (Xiphopenaeus sp. 1: FST=0.026; P<0.05; Xiphopenaeus sp. 2: FST=0.055; P<0.01) was found in the Brazilian Xiphopenaeus populations, indicating the presence of different genetic stocks in both Atlantic species. These findings have important commercial implications as they show that the fisheries of the two Atlantic species must be managed separately, and that each one is comprised of different populations.


Factorial Correspondence Analysis Allozyme Analysis South Atlantic Central Water Dorsal Tooth Penaeid Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank P. Vianna and P. Paiva for help with collecting the samples from Poças and Panama and M. Donato for the Venezuelan samples, R. Schama for help with sequence analyses, and C. Zilberberg for critical comments on the first version of the manuscript. This work was supported by grants from CAPES, CNPq, FAPERJ, FUJB and PADCT (Brazil).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Gusmão
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • C. Lazoski
    • 1
  • F. A. Monteiro
    • 3
  • A. M. Solé-Cava
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Departamento de Genética, Laboratório de Biodiversidade Molecular, Instituto de BiologiaUFRJRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Biologia Celular e Genética, Laboratório de Genética Marinha, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcântara GomesUERJRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Medicina TropicalInstituto Oswaldo CruzRio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, Port Erin Marine LaboratoryUniversity of LiverpoolIsle of ManUnited Kingdom

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