Marine Biology

, Volume 148, Issue 3, pp 581–597 | Cite as

Spatio-temporal changes in diversity and community structure of planktonic copepods in Sagami Bay, Japan

  • Shinji ShimodeEmail author
  • Tatsuki Toda
  • Tomohiko Kikuchi
Research Article


Seasonal changes in diversity and community structure of planktonic copepods at a shelf site in Sagami Bay, Japan was studied in relation to cross-shelf interaction of species components. Seasonal mesozooplankton samples were collected from the shelf station (St. M) of the north-west part of Sagami Bay from 1995 to 1997. Vertical multi-layered samples were collected near the center of Sagami Bay (St. P) in June 1996. A total 185 copepod species were identified from the two stations. We observed a clear seasonal succession in calanoid diversity and community structure at St. M from a simple shelf water community (>11 species) during spring blooming periods to highly diverse and mixed communities (ca 20–30 species) of shelf water species coupled with various Kuroshio Current species during late summer to autumn. Cluster and non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination analyses showed two distinct calanoid community groups. One group, which included samples of St. M and the surface layer of St. P, consisted of shelf water species, such as Calanus sinicus, Ctenocalanus vanus, Paracalanus spp., and Kuroshio species, such as, Canthocalanus pauper, Scolecithrix danae, etc. The other cluster was restricted to the samples collected from mid and deep layers at St. P, which consisted of meso- and bathypelagic species and Oyashio species (cold-current species, such as Neocalanus cristatus, Pseudocalanus spp., Eucalanus bungii and Metridia pacifica). In the mid and deep layers at St. P, the population of dormant copepodid stage V (CV) of Eucalanus californicus and C. sinicus were dominant. The deep CV population of C. sinicus might be ecologically discriminated from the surface and shelf water population due to their larger body length and dormant life cycle. E. californicus was also collected at the shelf site during each spring bloom period, whereas the population might descend into the mid- and deep-layers of the central bay before summer. Our results suggest that the seasonal fluctuation of community structure in the shelf water was controlled by both physical (Kuroshio Current) and biological factors, i.e., spring bloom and ontogenetic vertical migration of E. californicus. In particular, transport and diffusion processes of Kuroshio Current in Sagami Bay played a key role in controlling the shelf water calanoid community.


Shelf Water Kuroshio Current Calanoid Copepod Oyashio Region California Current System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We express sincere thank to Mr. Y. Asakura for the facility of the Manazuru Marine Laboratory, Yokohama National University and the captain and crew of R/V “Tansei-Maru” of Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo. We also sincerely thank to Dr. S. Taguchi, Soka University, who provided the chl. a data at St. M. Dr. A. Yamaguchi, Hokkaido University, and Mrs. Y. Tadasugi, Suido Sha Co. Ltd., kindly provided helpful comments on this manuscript. We were greatly aided by Dr. V. Kuwahara, University of California, Santa Barbara who kindly provided useful comments. Special thanks to three anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on our manuscript. Thanks are extended to our colleagues and the students of Yokohama National University and Soka University for their assistance of the present study. This study was partially supported by research grant of the 21st century centers of excellence program “Environmental Risk Management for Bio/Eco-Systems” of Yokohama National University.


  1. Alldredge AL, Robison BH, Fleminger A, J TJ, King JM, Hammer WM (1984) Direct sampling and in situ observation of a persistent copepod aggregation in the mesopelagic zone of the Santa Barbara Basin. Mar Biol 80:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bucklin A, Kaartvedt S, Guarnieri M, Goswami U (2000) Population genetics of drifting (Calanus spp.) and resident (Acartia clausi) plankton in Norwegian fjords. J Plankton Res 22:1237–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chihara M, Murano M (1997) An illustrated guide to marine plankton in Japan. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp 1574Google Scholar
  4. Clarke KR (1993) Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Aust J Ecol 18:117–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clarke KR, Warwick RM (2001) Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation, second edition. PRIMER-E Ltd, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  6. Davis CS (1987) Components of the zooplankton production cycle in the temperate ocean. J Mar Res 45:945–983Google Scholar
  7. Deevey GB, Brooks AL (1977) Copepods of the Sargasso Sea off Bermuda: species composition, and vertical and seasonal distribution between the surface and 2,000 m. Bull Mar Sci 27:256–291Google Scholar
  8. Field JG, Clarke KR, Warwick RM (1982) A practical strategy for analysing multispecies distribution pattern. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 8:37–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fleminger A (1973) Pattern, number, variability, and taxonomic significance of integument organs (sensilla and glandular pores) in the genus Eucalanus (Copepoda, Calanoida). Fish Bull 71:965–1010Google Scholar
  10. Gowing MM, Wishner KF (1986) Trophic relationships of deep-sea calanoid copepods from the benthic boundary layer of the Santa Catalina Basin, California. Deep-Sea Res 33A:939–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gowing MM, Wishner KF (1992) Feeding ecology of benthopelagic zooplankton on an eastern tropical Pacific seamount. Mar Biol 112:451–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Harding GCH (1974) The food of deep-sea copepods. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 54:141–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hirche HJ (1983) Overwintering of Calanus finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 11:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hopkins TL (1985) Food web of an Antarctic midwater ecosystem. Mar Biol 89:197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang C, Uye S, Onbe T (1993) Geographic distribution, seasonal life cycle, biomass and production of a planktonic copepod Calanus sinicus in the Inland Sea of Japan and its neighboring Pacific Ocean. J Plankton Res 15:1229–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hulsemann K (1994) Calanus sinicus Brodsky and C. jashnovi, nom. nov. (Copepoda: Calanoida) of the north-west Pacific Ocean: a comparison, with notes on the integumental pore pattern in Calanus s. str. Invertbr Taxon 8:1461–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Itoh K (1970) A consideration on feeding habits of planktonic copepods in relation to the structure of their oral parts. Bull Plankton Soc Japan 17:1–10Google Scholar
  18. Iwata S (1985) Chapter 10 Sagami Bay, I Physics. In: Coastal Oceanography Research Committee (ed) Coastal oceanography of Japanese Islands [in Japanese]. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp 401–409Google Scholar
  19. Iwata S (1987) Studies on the short-term variations of oceanic conditions in Sagami Bay. Special Report of Kanagawa Prefectural Fishery Experimental Station 2:1–66Google Scholar
  20. Iwata S (1990) The Kyucho in Sagami Bay. Bulletin of the Kanagawa Prefectural Fishery Experiment Station 11:11–15Google Scholar
  21. Kadota S (1984) Wagakuni chubuinan taiheiyou engan-iki ni okeru Calanus sinicus no bunpu-tokusei (Distribution of Calanus sinicus in the middle and southern Pacific coast of Japan). In: Marumo R (ed) Kaiyou no seibutsu katei (Biological processes of ocean) [in Japanese]. Kouseisha-kouseikaku, Tokyo, Japan, pp 121–123Google Scholar
  22. Keister JE, Peterson WT (2003) Zonal and seasonal variations in zooplankton community structure off the central Oregon coast, 1998–2000. Prog Oceanogr 57:341–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kitazato H, Nakatsuka T, Shimanaga M, Kanda J, Soh W, Kato Y, Okada Y, Yamaoka A, Masuzawa T, Suzuki K, Shirayama Y (2003) Long-term monitoring of the sedimentary processes in the central part of Sagami Bay, Japan: rationale, logistics and overview of results. Prog Oceanogr 57:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kodachi T (1974) Engan-iki ni okeru makuro-purankuton ni tsuite (Macroplankton at coastal ocean) [in Japanese]. Bull Coast Oceanogr 12:71–80Google Scholar
  25. Kodachi T (1979) Systematic of Calanus in the Japanese water, with special reference to morphological differentiations of Calanus in Sagami Bay (1) [in Japanese with English abstract]. Aquabiology 1:9–15Google Scholar
  26. Longhurst A (1998) Ecological geography of the sea. Academic Press, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  27. Morgan CA, Peterson TW, Emmett RL (2003) Onshore-offshore variations in copepod community structure off the Oregon coast during the summer upwelling season. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 249:223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Motoda S (1971) Device of simple plankton apparatus, V. Bull Faculty Fish Hokkaido Univ 58:101–106Google Scholar
  29. Nakata N (1985) Chapter 10 Sagami Bay IV Biology. In: Coastal Oceanography Research Committee (ed) Coastal oceanography of Japanese Island [in Japanese]. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp 417–427Google Scholar
  30. Nishida S, Ohtsuka S (1997a) Reconsideration on feeding habits of marine pelagic copepods (Crustacea) [in Japanese with English abstract]. Oceanogr Japan 6:299–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nishida S, Ohtsuka S (1997b) Ultrastructure of the mouthpart sensory setae in the mesopelagic copepods of the family Scolecitrichidae. Plankton Biol Ecol 44:81–90Google Scholar
  32. Ohman MD, Drits AV, Clarke ME, Plourde S (1998) Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods. Deep-Sea Res II 45:1709–1740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ohtsuka S, Soh H-Y, Nishida S (1997) Evolutionary switching from suspension-feeding to carnivory in the calanoid family Heterorhabdidae (Copepoda). J Crust Biol 17:577–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Osgood KE, Checkley KJ (1997) Seasonal variations in a deep aggregation of Calanus pacificus in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 148:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ozaki K, Takeuchi T, Shiga N, Mito K (2001) Winter zooplankton biomass and population structure of calanoid copepods in the Bering Sea basin. Plankton Biol Ecol 48:46–51Google Scholar
  36. Peterson WT, Miller CB (1977) The seasonal cycle of zooplankton abundance and species composition along the central Oregon coast. Fish Bull 75:717–724Google Scholar
  37. Peterson WT, Gomez GJ, Morgan CA (2002) Cross-shelf variation in calanoid copepod production during summer 1996 off the Oregon coast, USA. Mar Biol 141:353–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pielou EC (1966) The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. J Theor Biol 13:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pu X-M, Sun S, Yang B, Zhang G-T, Zhang F (2004) Life history strategies of Calanus sinicus in the southern Yellow Sea in summer. J Plankton Res 26:1059–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rau GH, Ohman MD, Pierrot-Bults A (2003) Linking nitrogen dynamics to climate variability off central California: a 51 year record based on 15 N/14 N in CalCOFI zooplankton. Deep-Sea Res II 50:2431–2447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Roe HSJ (1974) The vertical distributions and diurnal migrations of calanoid copepods collected on the SOND cruise, 1965. I. The total population and general discussion. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 52:277–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roe HSJ (1984) The diel migrations and distributions within mesopelagic community in the north-east Atlantic. 4. The copepods. Prog Oceanogr 13:353–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Siokou-Frangou I (1996) Zooplankton annual cycle in a Mediterranean coastal area. J Plankton Res 18:203–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Smith SL, Lane PVZ (1991) The jet off Point Arena, California[em]its role in aspects of secondary production in the copepod Eucalanus californicus Johnson. J Geophysical Res Ocean 96:14849–14858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tanaka O (1953) The pelagic copepods of the Izu region. Pub Seto Mar Biol Lab 1:126–129Google Scholar
  46. Tanaka O (1956) The pelagic copepods of the Izu region, middle Japan systematic account I. Families Calanidae and Eucalanidae. Pub Seto Mar Biol Lab 5:252–272Google Scholar
  47. Tanaka O (1961) The pelagic copepods of the Izu region, middle Japan systematic account VII. Family Scolecithricidae (Part 2). Pub Seto Mar Biol Lab 10:35–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tanaka O (1963) The pelagic copepods of the Izu region, middle Japan systematic account IX. Families Centropagidae, Pseudodiaptomidae, Temoridae, Metridiidae and Lucicutiidae. Pub Seto Mar Biol Lab 11:7–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tanaka O (1965) The pelagic copepods of the Izu region, middle Japan systematic account XIII. Parapontellidae, Acartiidae and Tortanidae. Pub Seto Mar Biol Lab 12: 379–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tanaka O, Omori M (1968) Additional report on calanoid copepods from the Izu region 1. Euchaeta and Pareuchaeta. Pub Seto Mar Biol Lab 16:219–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tanaka O, Omori M (1992) Additional report on calanoid copepods from the Izu region Part 6. Phaennidae. Pub Seto Mar Biol Lab 35:253–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Terazaki M (1990) Nihon shuhen kaiiki no purankuton ni tsuite (Plankton around Japanese Island). In: Costal Oceanography Research Committee (ed) Coastal oceanography of Japanese Island, supplementary volume [in Japanese]. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp 265–281Google Scholar
  53. Terazaki M, Tomatsu C (1997) A vertical multiple opening and closing plankton sampler. J Adv Mar Sci Technol Soc 3:127–132Google Scholar
  54. Uda M (1953) On the stormy current (“Kyûtyô”) and its prediction in the Sagami Bay. J Oceanogr Soc Japan 9:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Uye S (2000) Why does Calanus sinicus prosper in the shelf ecosystem of the north-west Pacific Ocean? ICES J Mar Sci 57:1850–1855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yamaguchi A, Watanabe Y, Ishida H, Harimoto T, Furusawa K, Suzuki S, Ishizaka J, Ikeda T, Masayuki MT (2002) Community and trophic structures of pelagic copepods down to greater depths in the western subarctic Pacific (WEST-COSMIC). Deep-Sea Res I 49:1007–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yamaji I (1966) Nihon kaiyo purankuton zukan (An illustrated book of marine plankton in Japan). Hoikusha, OsakaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shinji Shimode
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tatsuki Toda
    • 2
  • Tomohiko Kikuchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Environmental and Information SciencesYokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of EngineeringSoka UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations