Marine Biology

, Volume 148, Issue 2, pp 347–361 | Cite as

Changes in gonadal development, androgenic gland cell structure, and hemolymph vitellogenin levels during male phase and sex change in laboratory-maintained protandric shrimp, Pandalus hypsinotus (Crustacea: Caridea: Pandalidae)

  • T. OkumuraEmail author
  • H. Nikaido
  • K. Yoshida
  • M. Kotaniguchi
  • Y. Tsuno
  • Y. Seto
  • T. Watanabe
Research Article


Most pandalid shrimps show protandric hermaphroditism, and male sexual differentiation is considered to be controlled by the androgenic gland. In the present study, we examined the histology of gonadal development during the male phase and sex change and the involvement of the androgenic gland in regulating male reproduction in laboratory-maintained Pandalus hypsinotus. Juvenile shrimps developed testicular tissues in the peripheral part of gonads during the age of 16–31 months and produced spermatozoa between 34 and 36 months. After reaching sexual maturity, male shrimps exhibited seasonal testicular development: active production of spermatozoa (February–May), disappearance of spermatozoa (spent, April–June), increase of spermatocytes (May–November), appearance of spermatids and spermatozoa in the gonads (November–February). The androgenic gland cells became larger and the rough endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm developed at male sexual maturity. The cell structure shows that the androgenic gland hormone is a peptide. Furthermore, bilateral eyestalk ablation on immature male shrimps induced hypertrophy of the androgenic gland and acceleration of male sexual maturation. These results indicate the involvement of androgenic gland hormone and some eyestalk factor in regulating male sexual maturation. Over a 1-year laboratory-rearing period, some male shrimps (16.7%) changed sex. In transitional shrimps, testicular tissues in the gonads and androgenic glands degenerated; on the other hand, oocytes started yolk protein accumulation and hemolymph vitellogenin levels became high. These results suggest that androgenic gland degeneration is a trigger for sex change and that the vitellogenin level is a useful marker for sex change.


Testicular Tissue Ejaculatory Duct Vitellogenic Oocyte Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone Male Phase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The present study was supported, in part, by a Fisheries Research Agency project, and by funds from the Cooperative Program No. 38, 2001 provided by Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo. The experiments comply with the current laws of Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Okumura
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Nikaido
    • 2
  • K. Yoshida
    • 3
    • 7
  • M. Kotaniguchi
    • 4
    • 5
  • Y. Tsuno
    • 4
    • 6
  • Y. Seto
    • 4
    • 5
  • T. Watanabe
    • 4
  1. 1.National Research Institute of AquacultureFisheries Research AgencyNanseiJapan
  2. 2.Amami National Center for Stock EnhancementFisheries Research AgencyOshimaJapan
  3. 3.Obama National Center for Stock EnhancementFisheries Research AgencyObamaJapan
  4. 4.Toyama Prefectural Fisheries Research InstituteNamerikawaJapan
  5. 5.Government of Toyama PrefectureToyamaJapan
  6. 6.Toyama Prefectural Sea Farming CenterHimiJapan
  7. 7.Fisheries AgencyMinistry of Agriculture, Forestry, and FisheriesTokyoJapan

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