Transmission, plasticity and the molecular identification of cyanobacterial symbionts in the Red Sea sponge Diacarnus erythraenus
Cyanobacterial symbionts in the sponge Diacarnus erythraenus from the Red Sea were identified in both adult sponges and their larvae by 16S rDNA sequencing. A single cyanobacterial type was found in all samples. This cyanobacterial type is closely related to other sponge cyanobacterial symbionts. The cyanobacterial rDNA, together with the morphological analysis by electron and fluorescence microscopy, provided evidence for vertical transmission of the symbionts in this sponge. In addition, we show phenotypic plasticity of the symbionts inside the sponge, probably as a result of variability in light availability inside the sponge tissue. Finally, the reproduction of Diacarnus erythraenus is also described.
KeywordsSponge Synechococcus Vertical Transmission Marine Sponge Sponge Species
This work was financially supported by Grant 2000-321 from the United States–Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF) to M. Ilan, S. Beer and J.R. Pawlik. I. Brickner is thanked for histological preparations, and Y. Delarea for assistance with electron microscopy. S. Beer is thanked for his editorial comments of the manuscript. We thank the staff of the Inter-University Institute in Elat for their help during the course of this study. Samples were collected in compliance with the 2003/16729 permit from the Israel Nature and National Parks Protection Authority.
- Diaz M, Ward B (1997) Molecular detection and characterization of specific bacterial groups associated to tropical sponges. Proc 8th Internat Coral Reef Symp 2:1399–1402Google Scholar
- Levi C, Levi P (1976) Embryogenese de Chondrosia reniformis (NARDO) demosponge ovipare, et transmission des bacteries symbiotiques. Ann Sci Nat 18:367–380Google Scholar
- Sarà M, Bavestrello G, Cattaneo-Vietti R, Cerrano C (1998) Endosymbiosis in sponges: Relevance for epigenesis and evolution. Symbiosis 25:57–70Google Scholar
- Scalera Liaci L, Sciscioli M, Matarrese A (1971) La reproduzione sessuale di alcuni Tetractinomorpha (Porifera). Atti. Soc. Peloritana Scienze Fis Matem Natur 17:235–245Google Scholar
- Sciscioli M, Lepore E, Gherardi M, Scalera Liaci L (1994) Transfer of symbiotic bacteria in the mature oocyte of Geodia cydonium (Porifera, Demospongiae): an ultrastructural study. Cah Biol Mar 35:471–478Google Scholar
- Usher KM, Toze S, Fromont J, Kuo J, Sutton DC (2004b) A new species of cyanobacterial symbiont from the marine sponge Chondrilla nucula. Symbiosis 36:183–192Google Scholar
- Wilkinson CR (1979) Nutrient translocation from symbiotic cyanobacteria to coral reef sponges. In: Levi C, Boury-Esnault N (eds) Colloques internationaux du CNRS No 291 - Biologie des spongiaires. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, pp 373–380Google Scholar
- Wilkinson CR (1981) Significance of sponge with cyanobacterial symbionts on Davies Reef, Great Barrier Reef Proc 4th internat. Coral Reef Symp Manila 2:705–712Google Scholar
- Wilkinson CR (1983) Phylogeny of bacterial and cyanobacterial symbionts in marine sponges. Endocytobiology 2:993–1002Google Scholar