Advertisement

Wood Science and Technology

, Volume 53, Issue 6, pp 1353–1372 | Cite as

Thermal decomposition fundamentals in large-diameter wooden logs during slow pyrolysis

  • Márcia Silva de JesusEmail author
  • Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro
  • Clara Lisseth Mendoza Martinez
  • Benedito Rocha Vital
  • Antônio Policarpo Souza Carneiro
  • Maíra Reis de Assis
Original

Abstract

Charcoal has several applications on both small and industrial scales. Nevertheless, its parallel production of approximately 70% in coproducts during the slow pyrolysis process is still considered a challenge, especially for producers in emerging countries. However, the Brazilian production model stands out positively compared to the other producing countries, considering that Brazil is the world’s largest charcoal and sole pig iron producer from a renewable natural resource. The aim of this work was to analyze the thermal behavior of wood during the thermochemical process and the macro-thermogravimetry of large wood samples in different moisture and diameter conditions, similar to those found in the production units in Brazil. The slow pyrolysis was performed using 30-cm-long logs. The highest temperature gradient of 280 °C was observed in the 14-cm-diameter and 40 wt% moisture logs. The wood heating rate during carbonization was nonlinear. The presence of water in the wood delays the charcoal production reactions by up to 50% and contributes to the formation of different thermal profiles in the wood. Thus, due to the nonlinear thermal profile of the transformation of wood into charcoal, thermal curves are an important tool to help the control systems of the charcoal production units.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was kindly supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nivel superior (CAPES) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) Brazil. The authors also thank other contributing research institutions including Federal University of Lavras, Federal University of Viçosa and Energy Laboratory and Wood Panels.

Supplementary material

226_2019_1133_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 19 kb)

References

  1. ABNT (1986) NBR 8112: Charcoal: immediate analysis, vol 8. Brazilian Association of Technical Standards, Rio de Janeiro (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  2. ABNT (2003a) NBR 14929: Wood: determination of basic density, vol 6. Brazilian Association of Technical Standards, Rio de Janeiro (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  3. ABNT (2003b) NBR 11941: Wood: determination of basic density, vol 6. Brazilian Association of Technical Standards, Rio de Janeiro (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  4. Anca-Couce A (2016) Reaction mechanisms and multi-scale modelling of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis. Prog Energy Combust Sci 53(1):41–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anca-Couce A, Scharler R (2017) Modelling heat of reaction in biomass pyrolysis with detailed reaction schemes. Fuel 206(1):572–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arruda TPMD, Pimenta AS, Vital BR, Lucia RM, Acosta FC (2011) Evaluation of two carbonization routines in rectangular kilns. Rev Árvore 35(4):949–955 (in Portuguese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aysu T, Küçük MM (2014) Biomass pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: effects of pyrolysis parameters on product yields and characterization of products. Energy 64(1):1002–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailis R, Rujanavech C, Dwivedi P, Vilela AO, Chang H, Miranda RC (2013b) Innovation in charcoal production: a comparative life-cycle assessment of two kiln technologies in Brazil. Energy Sustain Dev 17(2):189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barcellos D (2007) Charcoal characterization through the use of near infrared spectroscopy, vol 162. Dissertation, Master in Forest Science, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  10. Bennadji H, Smith K, Shabangu S, Fisher EM (2013) Low-temperature pyrolysis of woody biomass in the thermally thick regime. Energy Fuels 27(3):1453–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bilbao R, Mastral JF, Ceamano J, Aldea ME (1996) Modelling of the pyrolysis of wet wood. J Anal Appl Pyrol 36(1):81–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bryden KM, Ragland KW, Rutland CJ (2002) Modeling thermally thick pyrolysis of wood. Biomass Bioenerg 22(1):41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bustamante-García V, Carrillo-Parra A, González-Rodríguez H, Ramírez-Lozano RG, Corral-Rivas JJ, Garza-Ocañas F (2013) Evaluation of a charcoal production process from forest residues of Quercus sideroxyla Humb & Bonplin a Brazilian beehive kiln. Ind Crops Prod 42(1):169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cardoso MT, Damásio RAP, Carneiro ADCO, Jacovine LAG, Vital BR, Barcelos DC (2010) Construction of a carbonization gas flaring system to reduce pollutant emissions. Cerne 16(1):115–124 (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  15. Chen Q, Yang R, Zhao B, Li Y, Wang S, Wu H, Chen C (2014) Investigation of heat of biomass pyrolysis and secondary reactions by simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Fuel 134(1):467–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chidumayo EN, Gumbo DJ (2013) The environmental impacts of charcoal production in tropical ecosystems of the world: a synthesis. Energy Sustain Dev 17(2):86–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coutinho AR, Ferraz ESB (1988) Determination of charcoal friability. As a function of tree diameter and carbonization temperature. IPEF 38:33–37 (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  18. Dhyani V, Bhaskar T (2018) A comprehensive review on the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Renew Energy 129:695–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Di Blasi C, Hernandez EG, Santoro A (2000) Radiative pyrolysis of single moist wood particles. Ind Eng Chem Res 39(4):873–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Di Blasi C, Branca C, Santoro A, Hernandez EG (2001) Pyrolytic behavior and products of some wood varieties. Combust Flame 124(2):165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donato DB (2017). Development and evaluation of furnace for combustion of wood carbonization gases, vol 99. Doctoral dissertation Forest Science. Federal University of Viçosa (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  22. Ferreira DF (2000). Sisvar System manual for statistical analysis, vol 63. Federal University of Lavras, Lavras (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  23. Galvão APM, Jankowsky IP (1985) Rational drying of wood, vol 1. Nobel, São Paulo, p 112 (in Potuguese) Google Scholar
  24. Goldschimid O (1971) Ultraviolet spectra. In: Sarkanen KV, Ludwing CH (eds) Lignins. Wiley, New York, pp 241–266Google Scholar
  25. Gomide JL, Demuner BJ (1986) Lignin content quantification in woody material: modified Klason method. The Paper 47(8):36–38 (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  26. Hasan MM, Hu X, Gunawan R, Li CZ (2017) Pyrolysis of large mallee wood particles: temperature gradients within a pyrolysing particle and effects of moisture content. Fuel Process Technol 158:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jesus MS, Napoli A, Trugilho PF, Abreu Júnior ÁA, Martinez CLM, Freitas TP (2018) Energy and mass balance in the pyrolysis process of eucalyptus wood. Cerne 24(3):288–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jiang S, Hu X, Shao X, Song Y, Xia D, Li CZ (2017) Effects of thermal pretreatment and ex situ grinding on the pyrolysis of mallee wood cylinders. Fuel Process Technol 159(1):211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kan T, Strezov V, Evans TJ (2016) Lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis: a review of product properties and effects of pyrolysis parameters. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 57(1):1126–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee Y, Park J, Ryu C, Gang KS, Yang W, Park K, Hyun S (2013) Comparison of biochar properties from biomass residues produced by slow pyrolysis at 500 C. Biores Technol 148(1):196–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li L, Rowbotham JS, Greenwell CH, Dyer PW (2013) An introduction to pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis: versatile techniques for biomass conversion. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 173–208Google Scholar
  32. Lu Q, Li WZ, Zhu XF (2009) Overview of fuel properties of biomass fast pyrolysis oils. Energy Convers Manag 50(5):1376–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mani T, Murugan P, Abedi J, Mahinpey N (2010) Pyrolysis of wheat straw in a thermogravimetric analyzer: effect of particle size and heating rate on devolatilization and estimation of global kinetics. Chem Eng Res Des 88(8):952–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Neves TA, Protásio TDP, Couto AM, Trugilho PF, Silva VO, Vieira CMM (2011) Evaluation of Eucalyptus clones in different locations for charcoal production. Pesqui Florest Bras 31(68):319 (in Portuguese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Oliveira ACM (2012). Furnace system for charcoal production, vol 73. Master’s thesis—Forest Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  36. Oliveira AC, Carneiro ADCO, Pereira BLC, Vital BR, Carvalho AMML, Trugilho PF, Damásio RAP (2013) Optimization of charcoal production by controlling carbonization temperatures. Rev Árvore 37(3):557–566 (in Portuguese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Oyedun AO, Lam KL, Hui CW (2012) Charcoal production via multistage pyrolysis. Chin J Chem Eng 20(3):455–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Park WC, Atreya A, Baum HR (2010) Experimental and theoretical investigation of heat and mass transfer processes during wood pyrolysis. Combust Flame 157(3):481–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pereira BLC, Carneiro ADCO, Carvalho AMML, Trugilho PF, Melo ICNA, Oliveira AC (2013) Study of thermal degradation of Eucalyptus wood by thermogravimetry and calorimetry. Rev Árvore 37(3):567–576 (in Portuguese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Raad TJ (2004). Simulation of the drying and carbonization process of Eucalyptus spp., 115. Doctoral dissertation—Mechanical Engineering. Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  41. Reis AA, Protásio TP, Melo ICNA, Trugilho PF, Carneiro ADCO (2012) Composition of Eucalyptus urophylla wood and charcoal in different planting locations. Pesqui Florest Bras 32(1):277 (in Portuguese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roy P, Dias G (2017) Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in the bioenergy sector: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 77(1):59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Santos RC, Carneiro ACO, Castro AFM, Castro RVO, Bianche JJ, Souza MM, Cardoso MC (2011) Correlations between wood and charcoal quality parameters of eucalyptus clones. Sci For 39(90):221–230 (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  44. Santos RCD, Carneiro ADCO, Trugilho PF, Mendes LM, Carvalho AMML (2012) Thermogravimetric analysis in eucalyptus clones as a subsidy for charcoal production. Rev Cerne 18(1):143–151 (in Portuguese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sharma RK, Wooten JB, Baliga VL, Lin X, Chan WG, Hajaligol MR (2004) Characterization of chars from pyrolysis of lignin. Fuel 83(11):1469–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shen J, Wang XS, Garcia-Perez M, Mourant D, Rhodes MJ, Li CZ (2009) Effects of particle size on the fast pyrolysis of oil mallee woody biomass. Fuel 88(10):1810–1817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shi X, Ronsse F, Pieters JG (2016) Finite element modeling of intraparticle heterogeneous tar conversion during pyrolysis of woody biomass particles. Fuel Process Technol 148(1):302–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. SINDIFER (2017). Statistical Yearbook, base year 2016, vol 28. Sindicato da Indústria do Ferro no Estado de Minas GeraisGoogle Scholar
  49. Souza NDD, Amodei JB, Xavier CN, Dias Júnior AF, Carvalho AMD (2016) Case study of a carbonization plant: evaluation of charcoal characteristics and quality for steel use. Floresta Ambiente 23(1):270–277 (in Portuguese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. TAPPI (1996a) TAPPI test methods T 257 cm-85: Sampling and preparing wood for analysis. Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. Tappi Technology Park 1, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  51. TAPPI (1996b) TAPPI test methods T 264 om-88: Preparation of wood for chemical analysis. Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. Tappi Technology Park 1, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  52. Tripathi M, Sahu JN, Ganesan P (2016) Effect of process parameters on production of biochar from biomass waste through pyrolysis: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 5:467–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Trugilho PF, Lima JT, Mori FA, Lino AL (2001) Evaluation of eucalyptus clones for charcoal production. Cerne 7(2):104–114 (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  54. Vilela AO, Lora ES, Quintero QR, Vicintin RA, Souza TPDS (2014) A new technology for the combined production of charcoal and electricity through cogeneration. Biomass Bioenergy 69:222–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Vital BR (1984). Methods of determining wood density. Sociedade de Investigação Florestal, Viçosa. Boletim técnico, vol 2, p 21 (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  56. Volpe R, Menendez JMB, Reina TR, Messineo A, Millan M (2017) Evolution of chars during slow pyrolysis of citrus waste. Fuel Process Technol 158(1):255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang X, Kersten SR, Prins Swaaij WP (2005) Biomass pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor. Part 2: experimental validation of model results. Ind Eng Chem Res 44(23):8786–8795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Xin S, Yang H, Chen Y, Yang M, Chen L, Wang X, Chen H (2015) Chemical structure evolution of char during the pyrolysis of cellulose. J Anal Appl Pyrol 116(1):263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yang H, Yan R, Chen H, Zheng C, Lee DH, Liang DT (2006) In-depth investigation of biomass pyrolysis based on three major components: hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Energy Fuels 20(1):388–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yang H, Yan R, Chen H, Lee DH, Zheng C (2007) Characteristics of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin pyrolysis. Fuel 86(12–13):1781–1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yu ZT, Xu X, Fan LW, Hu YC, Cen KF (2011) Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity of wood species in China: effects of density, temperature, and moisture content. For Prod J 61(2):130–135Google Scholar
  62. Zeng K, Minh DP, Gauthier D, Weiss-Hortala E, Nzihou A, Flamant G (2015) The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood. Biores Technol 182(9):114–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zucoloto M, Costa MG, Carvalho LM, Santos D, Siqueira DL (2011) Estimation of seed production of citrus rootstocks by fruit mass. Rev Ceres 58(1):126–128 (in Portuguese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Márcia Silva de Jesus
    • 1
    Email author
  • Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro
    • 1
  • Clara Lisseth Mendoza Martinez
    • 2
  • Benedito Rocha Vital
    • 1
  • Antônio Policarpo Souza Carneiro
    • 1
  • Maíra Reis de Assis
    • 3
  1. 1.Federal University of Viçosa (UFV)ViçosaBrazil
  2. 2.Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG)Belo HorizonteBrazil
  3. 3.Federal University of Lavras (UFLA)LavrasBrazil

Personalised recommendations