The Effect of Dried Beancurd on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Chinese Women: A 2-Year Randomized Controlled Trial
- 11 Downloads
Soy foods contain several components such as isoflavones, calcium and protein that potentially modulate bone turnover and increase bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. The study is to evaluate the effect of dried beancurd supplementation on skeletal health in postmenopausal Chinese women. Three hundred postmenopausal women aged 50–65 years were assigned into two groups, receiving 100 g dried beancurd or rice cake a day for 2 years. BMD at the lumbar spine and right proximal femur were measured with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bone turnover biomarkers of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone Gla protein (BGP) and urinary N-telopeptide cross-links of collagen normalized for creatinine (NTX/CRT) were also determined. Serum isoflavone concentration was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The 2-year dried beancurd supplementation generated a significant increase in lumbar spine BMD. An obvious decrease was found in urinary NTX/CRT, and a significant increase was detected in serum isoflavone concentration. The dried beancurd supplementation had no effect on changes of right proximal femur BMD and concentrations of serum ALP and BGP. Daily supplementation of dried beancurd could increase BMD of lumbar spine, but does not slow bone loss at right proximal femur in postmenopausal Chinese women.
KeywordsDried beancurd Postmenopausal women BMD Calcium Isoflavones
We appreciate the support of all the participants involved in the study. We are grateful to the Nestlé Foundation for the funding that made the entire work possible.
Author LL designed the study and prepared the first draft of the paper. She is guarantor. Authors MS, JS, HK and WZ contributed to the human study and experimental work. Author HW was responsible for statistical analysis of the data. All authors revised the paper critically for intellectual content and approved the final version. All authors agreed to be accountable for the work and to ensure that any questions relating to the accuracy and integrity of the paper were investigated and properly resolved.
This study was funded by Nestlé Foundation.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
The study was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of Institutional Review Committee of Public Health School of Xiamen University and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.
- 2.National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China (2018) The epidemiological investigation of osteoporosis in China. http://www.nhc.gov.cn/wjw/zcjd/201810/4988546cfa1040db86c1815d3dad7a2b.shtml. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
- 4.Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML, Jackson RD, Beresford SA, Howard BV, Johnson KC, Kotchen JM, Ockene J (2002) Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the women’s health initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288(3):321–333. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.3.321 Google Scholar
- 5.Ghanem K (2007) Beneficial effects of soybean protein and isoflavone extract supplementation on bone density and plasma lipids in females rats. Pol J Food Nutr Sci 57(1):103–108Google Scholar
- 10.Brink E, Coxam V, Robins S, Wahala K, Cassidy A, Branca F, Invest P (2008) Long-term consumption of isoflavone-enriched foods does not affect bone mineral density, bone metabolism, or hormonal status in early postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr 87(3):761–770. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.3.761 Google Scholar
- 11.Tai TY, Tsai KS, Tu ST, Wu JS, Chang CI, Chen CL, Shaw NS, Peng HY, Wang SY, Wu CH (2012) The effect of soy isoflavone on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Taiwanese women with bone loss: a 2-year randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Osteoporos Int 23(5):1571–1580. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-011-1750-7 Google Scholar
- 12.Kenny AM, Mangano KM, Abourizk RH, Bruno RS, Anamani DE, Kleppinger A, Walsh SJ, Prestwood KM, Kerstetter JE (2009) Soy proteins and isoflavones affect bone mineral density in older women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 90(1):234–242. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.27600 Google Scholar
- 15.Wu Y, Liu J, Xing S, Xu R, Zhang Z, Wang Y (2002) Comparative study on two different dosages of conjugated equine estrogen continuously combined with medroxyprogesterone in prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Chin J Obstet Gynecol 37(5):267–270Google Scholar
- 16.Pines A, Katchman H, Villa Y, Mijatovic V, Dotan I, Levo Y, Ayalon D (2010) The effect of various hormonal preparations and calcium supplementation on bone mass in early menopause. Is there a predictive value for the initial bone density and body weight? J Intern Med 246(4):357–361. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2796.1999.00578.x Google Scholar
- 18.Yang Y, Wang G, Pan X (2009) Chinese food composition. Peking University Medical Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- 23.Xin YHY (2006) Influence of daidzein tablets on climacteric syndrome and bone mineral density of women. Chin J Osteoporos 12(02):149–151Google Scholar
- 27.Gallagher JC, Satpathy R, Rafferty K, Haynatzka V (2004) The effect of soy protein isolate on bone metabolism. Menopause 11(3):290–298. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.gme.0000097845.95550.71 Google Scholar
- 28.Evans EM, Racette SB, Van Pelt RE, Peterson LR, Villareal DT (2007) Effects of soy protein isolate and moderate exercise on bone turnover and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Menopause 14(3):481–488. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.gme.0000243570.78570.f7 Google Scholar
- 29.Wang RR, Wang JD, Liu EQ (2006) Studies on compound coagulant of tofu. China Condiment 6:25–27Google Scholar
- 30.Chinese Nutrition Society (2014) Chinese dietary reference intakes. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- 31.Wang MC, Zhao A, Ignatius S, Wang Y, Ting LI, Wang PY, Zhang YM (2017) Calcium intake among Chinese adults in eight cities. Acta Nutrimenta Sinica 39(4):332–336. https://doi.org/10.13325/j.cnki.acta.nutr.sin.2017.04.006 Google Scholar
- 37.Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng HY, Stillman RJ, Shay NF, Erdman JW (1998) Soy protein and isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 68(6):1375s–1379sGoogle Scholar
- 39.Chinese Nutrition Society (2008) Dietary guidelines for Chinese (2007). Tibet People’s Publishing House, TibetGoogle Scholar