Advertisement

Field dependence–independence differently affects retrospective time estimation and flicker-induced time dilation

  • Alice TeghilEmail author
  • Maddalena Boccia
  • Cecilia Guariglia
Research Article
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

Field dependence–independence (FDI) is a stable dimension of individual functioning, transversal to different cognitive domains. While the role of some individual variables in time perception has received considerable attention, it is not clear whether and how FDI influences timing abilities. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FDI differently affects timing performance depending on whether the task requires cognitive restructuring. Participants were assessed for FDI using the embedded figures test (EFT). They performed a prospective timing task, reproducing the duration of a flickering stimulus, and a retrospective timing task, estimating the duration of the task. We expected performance of field-dependent (FD) and field-independent (FI) individuals not to differ in the prospective task, since restructuring of task material is not needed to reproduce the stimulus duration. Conversely, we predicted that FI individuals should be more accurate than FD ones in the retrospective condition, involving restructuring skills. Results show that while both FD and FI individuals under-reproduced the stimulus duration in the prospective task, only FD participants significantly underestimated the duration of the timing task in the retrospective condition. These results suggest that differences across FD and FI individuals are apparent in timing only when the task requires high-level cognitive processing; conversely, these differences do not affect basic sensory processing.

Keywords

Time perception Timing Interval reproduction Retrospective time estimation Field dependence Cognitive style 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The present study was partially supported by funding from Sapienza University of Rome to AT (Avvio alla Ricerca, 2018; nr AR11816421D63BF2) and by fellowship from the PhD Program in Behavioral Neuroscience of Sapienza University of Rome to AT.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

221_2019_5485_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 KB)

References

  1. Avolio BJ, Alexander RA, Barrett GV, Sterns HL (1981) Designing a measure of visual selective attention to assess individual differences in information processing. Appl Psychol Meas 5:29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berry JW, van de Koppel JMH, Sénéchal C, Annis RC, Bahuchet S, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Witkin HA (1986) On the edge of the forest. Cultural adaptation and cognitive development in Central Africa. Swets & Zeitlinger B.V., LisseGoogle Scholar
  3. Block RA (1974) Memory and the experience of duration in retrospective. Mem Cognit 2:153–160.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03197508 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Block RA (1978) Remembered duration: effects of event and sequence complexity. Mem Cognit 6:320–332.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03197462 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Block RA (1990) Models of psychological time. In: Block RA (ed) Cognitive models of psychological time, 1st edn. Psychology Press, New York, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  6. Block RA, Gruber RP (2014) Time perception, attention, and memory: a selective review. Acta Psychol (Amst) 149:129–133.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Block RA, Reed MJ (1978) Remembered duration: evidence for a contextual-change hypothesis. J Exp Psychol Hum Learn 4:656–665.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.4.6.656 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Block RA, Zakay D (1997) Prospective and retrospective duration judgments: a meta-analytic review. Psychon Bull Rev 4:184–197.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03209393 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Block RA, Zakay D, Hancock PA (1998) Human aging and duration judgments: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Aging 13:584–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Block RA, Hancock PA, Zakay D (2000) Sex differences in duration judgments: a meta-analytic review. Mem Cognit 28:1333–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boccia M, Piccardi L, Di Marco M, Pizzamiglio L, Guariglia C (2016) Does field independence predict visuo-spatial abilities underpinning human navigation? Behavioural evidence. Exp Brain Res 234:2799–2807.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-016-4682-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boccia M, Piccardi L, D’Alessandro A, Nori R, Guariglia C (2017a) Restructuring the navigational field: individual predisposition towards field independence predicts preferred navigational strategy. Exp Brain Res 235:1741–1748.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-017-4936-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boccia M, Vecchione F, Piccardi L, Guariglia C (2017b) Effect of cognitive style on learning and retrieval of navigational environments. Front Pharmacol 8:496.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00496 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown SW (1995) Time, change, and motion: the effects of stimulus movement on temporal perception. Percept Psychophys 57:105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown SW, Stubbs DA (1988) The psychophysics of retrospective and prospective timing. Perception 17(3):297–310.  https://doi.org/10.1068/p170297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brunec IK, Ozubko JD, Barense M, Moscovitch M (2017) Recollection-dependent memory for event duration in large-scale spatial navigation. Learn Mem 24:104–114.  https://doi.org/10.1101/lm.044032.116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Corson Y, Verrier N, Bucic A (2009) False memories and individual variations: the role of field dependence–independence. Pers Individ Differ 47:8–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.01.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davidson WB, House WJ (1978) Influence of reflection-impulsivity and cognitive style on time estimation under different ambient conditions. Percept Mot Skills 46:1083–1091.  https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1978.46.3c.1083 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Droit-Volet S (2013) Time perception in children: a neurodevelopmental approach. Neuropsychologia 51:220–234.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.09.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Droit-Volet S, Monceau S, Berthon M, Trahanias P, Maniadakis M (2018) The explicit judgment of long durations of several minutes in everyday life: conscious retrospective memory judgment and the role of affects? PLoS One 13(4):e0195397.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195397 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Du Preez P (1967) Field dependence and accuracy of comparison of time intervals. Percept Mot Skills 24:467–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. El Haj M, Moroni C, Samson S, Fasotti L, Allain P (2013) Prospective and retrospective time perception are related to mental time travel: evidence from Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Cognit 83:45–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2013.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elkind D, Koegler RR, Go E (1963) Field independence and concept formation. Percept Mot Skills 17:383–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goode PE, Goddard PH, Pascual-Leone J (2002) Event-related potentials index cognitive style differences during a serial-order recall task. Int J Psychophysiol 43:123–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goodenough DR (1975) The role of individual differences in field dependence as a factor in learning and memory. ETS Res Bull Ser 1:i-54.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2333-8504.1975.tb01047.x Google Scholar
  26. Grondin S, Laflamme V (2015) Stevens’s law for time: a direct comparison of prospective and retrospective judgments. Atten Percept Psychophys 77:1044–1051.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-015-0914-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grondin S, Plourde M (2007) Judging multi-minute intervals retrospectively. Q J Exp Psychol 60:1303–1312.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210600988976 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haldemann J, Stauffer C, Troche S, Rammsayer T (2011) Processing visual temporal information and its relationship to psychometric intelligence. J Individ Differ 32:181–188.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hashimoto Y, Yotsumoto Y (2018) The amount of time dilation for visual flickers corresponds to the amount of neural entrainments measured by EEG. Front Comput Neurosci 12:30.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2018.00030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hayashi MJ, Valli A, Carlson S (2013) Numerical quantity affects time estimation in the suprasecond range. Neurosci Lett 543:7–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2013.02.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herbst SK, Javadi AH, van der Meer E, Busch NA (2013) How long depends on how fast—perceived flicker dilates subjective duration. PLoS One 8(10):e76074.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Herbst SK, Chaumon M, Penney TB, Busch NA (2015) Flicker-induced time dilation does not modulate EEG correlates of temporal encoding. Brain Topogr 28:559–569.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10548-014-0389-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jantzen TB, Thompson WF, Ammirante P, Ranvaud R (2014) Timing skills and expertise: discrete and continuous timed movements among musicians and athletes. Front Psychol 5:1482.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01482 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Johnston A, Arnold DH, Nishida S (2006) Spatially localized distortions of event time. Curr Biol 16:472–479.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2006.01.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kanai R, Paffen CLE, Hogendoorn H, Verstraten FAJ (2006) Time dilation in dynamic visual display. J Vis 6:1421–1430Google Scholar
  36. Kaneko S, Murakami I (2009) Perceived duration of visual motion increases with speed. J Vis 9(7):14.  https://doi.org/10.1167/9.7.14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lhamon WT, Goldstone S (1975) Movement and the judged duration of visual targets. BPS 5:53–54Google Scholar
  38. Linares D, Gorea A (2015) Temporal frequency of events rather than speed dilates perceived duration of moving objects. Sci Rep 5:8825.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep08825 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Matthews WJ, Meck WH (2016) Temporal cognition: connecting subjective time to perception, attention, and memory. Psychol Bull 142:865–907.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Michon JA (1972) Processing of temporal information and the cognitive theory of time experience. In: Fraser JT, Haber FC, Müller GH (eds) The study of time. Springer, Berlin, pp 242–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mioni G, Stablum F, McClintock SM, Grondin S (2014) Different methods for reproducing time, different results. Atten Percept Psychophys 76:675–681.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-014-0625-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Okajima M, Yotsumoto Y (2016) Flickering task-irrelevant distractors induce dilation of target duration depending upon cortical distance. Sci Rep 6:32432.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep32432 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Phillips JR (1977) Relationship of field-dependence-independence to posture and judgment of time duration. Percept Mot Skills 44:931–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Plomp G, van Leeuwen C, Gepshtein S (2012) Perception of time in articulated visual events. Front Psychol 3:564.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00564 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Silverman AJ, Cohen SI, Shmavonian BM, Greenberg G (1961) Psychophysiological investigations in sensory deprivation. The body-field dimension. Psychosom Med 23:48–62.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-196101000-00006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Spiro RJ, Tirre WC (1980) Individual differences in schema utilization during discourse processing. J Educ Psychol 72:204–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tascón L, Boccia M, Piccardi L, Cimadevilla JM (2017) Differences in spatial memory recognition due to cognitive style. Front Pharmacol 23:8:550.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00550 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tobin S, Bisson N, Grondin S (2010) An ecological approach to prospective and retrospective timing of long durations: a study involving gamers. PLoS One 5(2):e9271.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009271 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Turgeon M, Lustig C, Meck WH (2016) Cognitive aging and time perception: roles of bayesian optimization and degeneracy. Front Aging Neurosci 8:102.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wearden JH, Wearden AJ, Rabbit PMA (1997) Age and IQ effects on stimulus and response timing. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 23:962–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Witkin HA (1949) Perception of body position and of the position of the visual field. Psychol Monogr 63:i-46.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0093613 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Witkin HA (1977) Cognitive style in personal and cultural adaptation. Field-dependent and field-independent cognitive styles and their educational implications. Clark University Press, WorcesterGoogle Scholar
  53. Witkin HA, Goodenough DR (1976a) Field dependence and interpersonal behavior. ETS Res Bull Ser 1:i-78.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2333-8504.1976.tb01098.x Google Scholar
  54. Witkin HA, Goodenough DR (1976b) Field dependence revisited. ETS Res Bull Ser 2:i-85.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2333-8504.1976.tb01125.x Google Scholar
  55. Witkin HA, Oltman PK, Raskin E, Karp S (1971) A manual for the embedded figures test. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
  56. Wittmann M, Simmons AN, Flagan T, Lane SD, Wackermann J, Paulus MP (2011) Neural substrates of time perception and impulsivity. Brain Res 1406:43–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.06.048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zakay D, Block RA (2004) Prospective and retrospective duration judgments: an executive-control perspective. Acta Neurobiol Exp 64:319–328Google Scholar
  58. Zakay D, Tsal Y, Moses M, Shahar I (1994) The role of segmentation in prospective and retrospective time estimation processes. Mem Cognit 22:344–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology“Sapienza” University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.PhD Program in Behavioral Neuroscience“Sapienza” University of RomeRomeItaly
  3. 3.Cognitive and Motor Rehabilitation UnitIRCCS Fondazione Santa LuciaRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations