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Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 236, Issue 10, pp 2691–2701 | Cite as

A jugular vein compression collar prevents alterations of endogenous electrocortical dynamics following blast exposure during special weapons and tactical (SWAT) breacher training

  • Scott Bonnette
  • Jed A. Diekfuss
  • Adam W. Kiefer
  • Michael A. Riley
  • Kim D. Barber Foss
  • Staci Thomas
  • Christopher A. DiCesare
  • Weihong Yuan
  • Jonathan Dudley
  • Amit Reches
  • Gregory D. Myer
Research Article
  • 47 Downloads

Abstract

Exposure to explosive blasts places one at risk for traumatic brain injury, especially for special weapons and tactics (SWAT) and military personnel, who may be repeatedly exposed to blasts. In the current study, the effectiveness of a jugular vein compression collar to prevent alterations in resting-state electrocortical activity following a single-SWAT breacher training session was investigated. SWAT team personnel were randomly assigned to wear a compression collar during breacher training and resting state electroencephalography (EEG) was measured within 2 days prior to and two after breacher training. It was hypothesized that significant changes in brain dynamics—indicative of possible underlying neurodegenerative processes—would follow blast exposure for those who did not wear the collar, with ameliorated changes for the collar-wearing group. Using recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) it was found that participants who did not wear the collar displayed longer periods of laminar electrocortical behavior (as indexed by RQA’s vertical max line measure) after breacher training. It is proposed that the blast wave exposure for the no-collar group may have reduced the number of pathways, via axonal disruption—for electrical transmission—resulting in the EEG signals becoming trapped in laminar states for longer periods of time. Longer laminar states have been associated with other electrocortical pathologies, such as seizure, and may be important for understanding head trauma and recovery.

Keywords

Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) Special weapons and tactics (SWAT) team Electroencephalography (EEG) Spontaneous activity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Hamilton County Police Association SWAT. We appreciate their patience with the testing scheduling, follow-ups, and equipment additions. Their enthusiastic support made this study possible. We would like to thank Chief David Schaefer-SWAT Commander, Sheriff Jim Neil-Hamilton County Sheriff and Chief Charles R. Lindsey-HCPA president for their help in obtaining approval for the study and for Interim SWAT Commander Tim Chin for helping to coordinate the entire study protocol. Special acknowledgement goes to SWAT Medical Directors, Dustin J. Calhoun, MD and Edward Otten, MD and Hamilton County Medical Director Lakshmi Kode Sammarco, MD. Without their time, commitment, and passion for the health and well-being of their team members, this study would not have been possible. We also thank Chief Jim Puthoff-Liaison to HCPA who supported and presented the research ideas to the SWAT that allowed for the initial discussions to medical directors. We would also like to thank James P. Bailey, Evans Demolition/Excavation Division who helped secure the bank for explosive breach training. We also thank the Bomb Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technicians Brad Justice and Steve Luensman who coordinated the explosive training and helped to ensure the safety of both SWAT members and the research team. The authors acknowledge funding support from Q30 Sports Innovations, LLC.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott Bonnette
    • 1
  • Jed A. Diekfuss
    • 1
  • Adam W. Kiefer
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michael A. Riley
    • 3
  • Kim D. Barber Foss
    • 1
  • Staci Thomas
    • 1
  • Christopher A. DiCesare
    • 1
  • Weihong Yuan
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jonathan Dudley
    • 4
  • Amit Reches
    • 6
  • Gregory D. Myer
    • 1
    • 2
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.The SPORT Center, Division of Sports MedicineCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Cincinnati College of Medicine, University of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Center for Cognition, Action, and Perception, Department of PsychologyUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  4. 4.Pediatric Neuroimaging Research ConsortiumCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  5. 5.College of MedicineUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  6. 6.ElMindA, Ltd.Tel AvivIsrael
  7. 7.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  8. 8.The Micheli Center for Sports Injury PreventionWalthamUSA

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