Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 208, Issue 1, pp 51–60 | Cite as

Intracranial landmarks and other techniques to further improve the precision of stereotaxic tracer injections

  • Zsolt I. KovácsEmail author
  • Miklós Palkovits
Research Article


This study is meant to combine traditional aspects of tracer microinjections using bone landmarks like bregma and lambda with novel procedures in which specific parts of the brain can serve as reference points. For telencephalic and diencephalic injections, the brain surface, the interhemispheric groove and the straight sinus can be used as absolute zero points for dorso-ventral, medio-lateral and rostro-caudal coordinates, respectively. In case of brainstem targets, the surface of the rhomboid fossa, the posterior spinal artery and the obex could serve as reference points along the above-mentioned coordinates. The application of high-precision stereotaxic measurements based on intracranial landmarks and sophisticated surgical procedures can yield well-targeted, small and well circumscribed injection sites that make possible the mapping of discrete nuclear subdivisions or delicate nuclei in the brain.


Cranial landmarks Intracranial landmarks Straight sinus Obex Virus microinjections Brain mapping Interhemispheric groove/fissure 



This research was supported by grants from the Hungarian Science Research Foundation, OTKA TS-049861. Special thanks to, Zsuzsanna E. Tóth PhD, Zoltán Buzogány D. D. and János Cifra M. D. for providing us substances (ZnCl2) and advice.

Supplementary material

221_2010_2459_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1814 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (MPG 8448 kb)

Supplementary material 3 (MPG 2494 kb)

Supplementary material 4 (MPG 7244 kb)

Supplementary material 5 (MPG 2188 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neuromorphological and Neuroendocrine Research Laboratory, Department of AnatomySemmelweis UniversityBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Hungarian Academy of SciencesBudapestHungary

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